Internalized Gender Stereotypes Vary Across Socioeconomic Indicators

13 Pages Posted: 5 Jun 2013 Last revised: 14 Jun 2013

See all articles by Julia Dietrich

Julia Dietrich

University of Jena

Konrad Schnabel

University of Potsdam

Tuulia M. Ortner

University of Salzburg

Alice Eagly

Northwestern University

Rocio Retamero-Garcia

University of Granada

Lea Kröger

German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)

Elke Holst

German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin); German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) - German Socio Economic Panel

Date Written: May 27, 2013

Abstract

In the following we aim to approach the question of why, in most domains of professional and economic life, women are more vulnerable than men to becoming targets of prejudice and discrimination by proposing that one important cause of this inequality is the presence of gender stereotypes in many domains of society. We describe two approaches employed to measure gender stereotypes: An explicit questionnaire based on rating scales and a newly developed Implicit Association Test assessing gender stereotypes representing instrumentality (i.e., agency) and expressivity (i.e., communion). We first present information on psychometric properties of each stereotype measure designed for this purpose. We then present preliminary data based on the SOEP Innovation Sample 2011 indicating differences in explicit stereotypes with reference to occupational position and income. Implicit stereotypic associations concerning expressivity increased with respondents’ age, stereotypic associations concerning instrumentality increased with household income, particularly among male participants. Finally, stereotypic associations were related simultaneously to occupational position and participants’ gender, such that differences between male and female participants were found in lower occupational positions for the Expressivity IAT and in higher occupational positions for the Instrumentality IAT. This finding indicates that individually held gender stereotypes are related to socioeconomic and social variables.

Keywords: Stereotypes, Gender, explicit, implicit, IAT, SOEP-IS

Suggested Citation

Dietrich, Julia and Schnabel, Konrad and Ortner, Tuulia M. and Eagly, Alice and Retamero-Garcia, Rocio and Kröger, Lea and Holst, Elke, Internalized Gender Stereotypes Vary Across Socioeconomic Indicators (May 27, 2013). SOEPpaper No. 558. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2273466 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2273466

Julia Dietrich (Contact Author)

University of Jena ( email )

Fürstengraben 1
Jena, 07743
Germany

Konrad Schnabel

University of Potsdam ( email )

August-Bebel Strasse 89
Potsdam, 14482
Germany

Tuulia M. Ortner

University of Salzburg

Akademiestraße 26
Salzburg, Salzburg 5020
Austria

Alice Eagly

Northwestern University ( email )

2001 Sheridan Road
Evanston, IL 60208
United States

Rocio Retamero-Garcia

University of Granada ( email )

C/Rector López Argueta S/N
Granada, Granada 18071
Spain

Lea Kröger

German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) ( email )

Mohrenstraße 58
Berlin, 10117
Germany

Elke Holst

German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) ( email )

Mohrenstraße 58
Berlin, 10117
Germany

German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin) - German Socio Economic Panel ( email )

DIW Berlin
Berlin, Berlin 14191
Germany

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