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Market Failure in the Diffusion of Clinician-Developed Innovations: The Case of Off-Label Drug Discoveries

25 Pages Posted: 8 Jun 2013 Last revised: 16 Feb 2016

Eric A. von Hippel

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management

Harold J. DeMonaco

Massachusetts General Hospital; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management

Jeroen P.J. de Jong

Utrecht University - Utrecht University School of Economics

Date Written: September 24, 2014

Abstract

Medical doctors occasionally discover potentially valuable new off-label uses for drugs during their clinical practice. They apply these to help their own patients, but often have minimal incentives to invest in diffusing them further. If the clinicians do not intend to patent and sell their discoveries – generally difficult and costly to do - the benefits that other clinicians might obtain from adopting the new off-label discoveries are to some extent an externality from the perspective of the discoverer. In other words, absent a market link between potential (free) adopters and the innovator, innovating clinicians incentives to invest in efforts to diffuse are likely to be low. This represents a form of market failure: effort invested in diffusion could lower adoption costs for many, but few innovators will invest that effort – and social welfare will be accordingly reduced. In this study we explore for empirical evidence for the market failure just described, and do find evidence for it. We find that clinicians’ diffusion efforts, when made, do increase the diffusion of generally valuable discoveries, but that innovating clinicians typically invest little to support diffusion. We therefore conclude with a discussion of how such a market failure could be addressed.

Keywords: user innovation, diffusion, clinician innovation, market failure

Suggested Citation

von Hippel, Eric A. and DeMonaco, Harold J. and de Jong, Jeroen P.J., Market Failure in the Diffusion of Clinician-Developed Innovations: The Case of Off-Label Drug Discoveries (September 24, 2014). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2275562 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2275562

Eric Von Hippel (Contact Author)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management ( email )

E62-455
Cambridge, MA 02142
United States
617-253-7155 (Phone)
617-253-2660 (Fax)

Harold DeMonaco

Massachusetts General Hospital ( email )

Boston, MA 02114
United States

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Sloan School of Management ( email )

100 Main Street
E62-416
Cambridge, MA 02142
United States

Jeroen P.J. De Jong

Utrecht University - Utrecht University School of Economics ( email )

Kriekenpitplein 21-22
Adam Smith Building
Utrecht, +31 30 253 7373 3584 EC
Netherlands

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