58 Pages Posted: 25 May 2006
Date Written: December 1999
Banks can create liquidity because their deposits are fragile and prone to runs. Increased uncertainty can make deposits excessively fragile in which case there is a role for outside bank capital. Greater bank capital reduces liquidity creation by the bank but enables the bank to survive more often and avoid distress. A more subtle effect is that banks with different amounts of capital extract different amounts of repayment from borrowers. The optimal bank capital structure trades off the effects of bank capital on liquidity creation, the expected costs of bank distress, and the ease of forcing borrower repayment. The model can account for phenomena such as the decline in average bank capital in the United States over the last two centuries. It points to overlooked side-effects of policies such as regulatory capital requirements and deposit insurance.
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
Diamond, Douglas W. and Rajan, Raghuram G., A Theory of Bank Capital (December 1999). NBER Working Paper No. w7431. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=227589