Conflict between Entrepreneurship and Open Science, and the Transition of Scientific Norms

38 Pages Posted: 30 Jun 2013

See all articles by Sotaro Shibayama

Sotaro Shibayama

Lund University - Department of Business Administration; University of Tokyo

Date Written: August 1, 2012


In the trend of academic entrepreneurship, practical and direct contribution of university research to the society has been emphasized, in which university scientists have increasingly engaged in commercial activities, university-industry relationships, and technology transfers. However, this trend has aroused concern about a potentially negative impact on the tradition of open science. Drawing on a survey data of 698 Japanese natural scientists, this study analyzes the behaviors and norms of university scientists under the influence of university interventions for entrepreneurship, whereby examining the compatibility between entrepreneurship and open science. The results indicate that entrepreneurial interventions have facilitated scientists’ norm for practical contribution, and consequently, their involvement in commercial activities and ties with industry. Then, some, but not all, of these entrepreneurial activities have deterred cooperative or open relationships between scientists. However, the results suggest that the entrepreneurial interventions have not deteriorated the traditional norm for open science. Further analyses indicate that the two norms for practical contribution and for open science are determined independently, implying that academic entrepreneurship can be promoted without deteriorating open science.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Academic capitalism, Commercialism, Open science, Scientific norm

JEL Classification: I23, O38

Suggested Citation

Shibayama, Sotaro, Conflict between Entrepreneurship and Open Science, and the Transition of Scientific Norms (August 1, 2012). Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2012, Available at SSRN:

Sotaro Shibayama (Contact Author)

Lund University - Department of Business Administration ( email )

Box 117
SE-221 00 Lund, S-220 07

University of Tokyo ( email )

Hongo 7-3-1
Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656


Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics