Establishing Degrees of Responsibility: Modes of Participation in Article 25 of the ICC Statute

Van Sliedregt, E./Vasiliev, S. (eds.), Pluralism in International Criminal Law, Oxford University Press (2014), Forthcoming

29 Pages Posted: 10 Jul 2013

See all articles by Gerhard Werle

Gerhard Werle

Humboldt University of Berlin - Faculty of Law

Boris Burghardt

Humboldt University of Berlin - Faculty of Law

Date Written: February 9, 2013

Abstract

As the International Criminal Court is handing down its first trial chamber judgments, the debate on modes of participation continues. It appears that there is growing skepticism shown towards the control-of-the-crime-theory that has guided the Court’s approach on Article 25 of the ICC Statute so far. This article argues that before an assessment of the merits and demerits of the control-of-the-crime-theory can be made, one needs to determine the role of modes of participation in general. In this regard, it will be shown that Article 25 establishes a four level hierarchy of individual criminal responsibility where modes of participation are relevant for sentencing purposes. Only on the basis of such a systematic understanding can one reach a consistent definition of the different modes of participation and Article 25 as a whole. Ultimately, instead of starting anew, the ICC should continue following the path it has chosen, albeit with refinements.

Keywords: International Criminal Law, International Criminal Court, Article 25 of the ICC Statute, modes of participation, control of the crime theory, fair labelling, principle of culpability, Lubanga Case

JEL Classification: K33, K14

Suggested Citation

Werle, Gerhard and Burghardt, Boris, Establishing Degrees of Responsibility: Modes of Participation in Article 25 of the ICC Statute (February 9, 2013). Van Sliedregt, E./Vasiliev, S. (eds.), Pluralism in International Criminal Law, Oxford University Press (2014), Forthcoming . Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2291596 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2291596

Gerhard Werle

Humboldt University of Berlin - Faculty of Law ( email )

Unter den Linden 6
Berlin, D-10099
Germany

HOME PAGE: http://werle.rewi.hu-berlin.de

Boris Burghardt (Contact Author)

Humboldt University of Berlin - Faculty of Law ( email )

Unter den Linden 6
Berlin, D-10099
Germany

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