Exit Consents in Sovereign Bond Exchanges

32 Pages Posted: 11 Jul 2000

See all articles by Lee C. Buchheit

Lee C. Buchheit

Center for Contract and Economic Organization; Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP - New York Office

G. Mitu Gulati

Duke University School of Law

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: May 18, 2000


The external debt of emerging market sovereign borrowers is now mainly in the form of bonds held by thousands of institutional and individual bondholders. Many of these bonds are governed by the law of the State of New York. As a matter of drafting convention, New York law-governed bonds for sovereign issuers prohibit amendments to the payment terms of the instruments (the amount and due dates of payments) without the consent of each affected bondholder. If a sovereign issuer finds it necessary to seek a restructuring of its bond indebtedness, it must therefore implement the restructuring by offering to exchange its old bonds for new debt instruments that reflect the new financial terms; a technique that inevitably risks leaving behind "holdout" creditors who may refuse to accept the proposed restructuring. Holdouts pose a litigation threat to the sovereign and may even jeopardize the sovereign's ability to service the new bonds it has issued to the other creditors participating in the exchange. A number of ideas - ranging from international bankruptcy codes to IMF-administered stays of creditor legal remedies - have been suggested as a means of dealing with the holdout creditor threat. This article suggests a less radical alternative: allowing the majority creditors to use the amendment clauses in their existing bonds to change certain non-payment terms contained in those bonds (such as financial covenants or waivers of sovereign immunity) as a means of encouraging prospective holdouts to participate in the exchange. Because the sovereign issuer solicits the consent of its creditors to amend the old bonds just as those lenders exchange their bonds for the sovereign's new debt instruments, this technique is referred to as an "exit" consent.

Suggested Citation

Buchheit, Lee C. and Gulati, Gaurang Mitu, Exit Consents in Sovereign Bond Exchanges (May 18, 2000). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=229166 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.229166

Lee C. Buchheit

Center for Contract and Economic Organization ( email )

New York, NY

Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP - New York Office ( email )

One Liberty Plaza
New York, NY 10006-1470
United States

Gaurang Mitu Gulati (Contact Author)

Duke University School of Law ( email )

210 Science Drive
Box 90362
Durham, NC 27708
United States

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