Long-Run Growth and Productivity Changes in Uruguay: Evidence from Aggregate and Industry Level Data

International Journal of Development Issues, Vol. 6 Iss: 2, pp.106-124, 2007

30 Pages Posted: 20 Jul 2013

See all articles by Nestor Gandelman

Nestor Gandelman

Universidad ORT Uruguay

Carlos Casacuberta

Universidad ORT at Uruguay - Department of Economics

Raimundo Soto

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile - Institute of Economics

Date Written: 2007

Abstract

The economic performance of Uruguay in the last fifty years has been disappointing. Annual growth in labor productivity has been lower than the rest of the Latin American economies and well below that East Asian and OECD countries. Out of the 0.9% of annual growth in productivity, total factor productivity accounts for around 45%, which confirms the key role TFP plays in economic growth. We decompose the change in productivity into four sources: an utilization effect, a reallocation effect, a markup effect and effect of technical change. In the 1985-1994 period there is an appreciable increase in productivity levels. On the other hand, the 1995-1999 period productivity increased by a mere 0.8% per year. The high increase in productivity between 1985 and 1994 is explained by the relatively high and sustained technical change of Uruguayan firms as well as the relocation of inputs between and within industries. The process of relocation seems to lose momentum – or may have been completed – in the late 1990s. Finally, a study of the contribution to growth of different determinants suggests two important conclusions. First, that government policies are at the base of growth instability. Second, that reforms have been the source of higher than predicted growth in the 1970s and 1990s, pointing to the need of deepening such reforms.

Keywords: sources of growth, productivity decomposition

JEL Classification: E6

Suggested Citation

Gandelman, Nestor and Casacuberta, Carlos and Soto, Raimundo, Long-Run Growth and Productivity Changes in Uruguay: Evidence from Aggregate and Industry Level Data (2007). International Journal of Development Issues, Vol. 6 Iss: 2, pp.106-124, 2007, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2296085

Nestor Gandelman (Contact Author)

Universidad ORT Uruguay ( email )

Bulevar España 2633
Montevideo, 11.300
Uruguay

Carlos Casacuberta

Universidad ORT at Uruguay - Department of Economics ( email )

Bulevar Espana 2633
Montevideo, 11300
Uruguay

Raimundo Soto

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile - Institute of Economics ( email )

Casilla 76
Correo 17
Santiago
Chile

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