Download this Paper Open PDF in Browser

The Fiduciary Foundations of Federal Equal Protection

48 Pages Posted: 28 Jul 2013  

Gary Lawson

Boston University School of Law

Guy I. Seidman

Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliyah - Radzyner School of Law

Robert G. Natelson

Independence & Heartland Institutes

Date Written: July 26, 2013


In Bolling v. Sharpe, the Supreme Court invalidated school segregation in the District of Columbia by inferring a broad “federal equal protection” principle from the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. It is often assumed that this principle is inconsistent with the Constitution’s original meaning and with “originalist” interpretation.

This Article demonstrates, however, that a federal equal protection principle is not only consistent with the Constitution’s original meaning, but inherent in it. The Constitution was crafted as a fiduciary document of the kind that, under contemporaneous law, imposed on agents acting for more than one beneficiary – and on officials serving the general public – a well-established duty to serve all impartially. The Constitution, like other fiduciary instruments, imposes a standard of equal treatment from which lawmakers and officials cannot depart without reasonable cause. Although the Constitution’s original meaning does not precisely define the answers to all “equal protection” cases, and does not necessarily prescribe norms identical to those of existing equal protection jurisprudence, it clearly does prohibit racial discrimination of the kind at issue in Bolling.

Keywords: Constitutional law, equal protection, fiduciary

JEL Classification: K19, K39, K40, K49

Suggested Citation

Lawson, Gary and Seidman, Guy I. and Natelson, Robert G., The Fiduciary Foundations of Federal Equal Protection (July 26, 2013). Boston Univ. School of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 13-32. Available at SSRN: or

Gary Lawson (Contact Author)

Boston University School of Law ( email )

765 Commonwealth Avenue
Boston, MA 02215
United States
617-353-3812 (Phone)

Guy Seidman

Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliyah - Radzyner School of Law ( email )

P.O. Box 167
Herzliya, 46150
972-9-952-7348 (Phone)

Robert Natelson

Independence & Heartland Institutes ( email )

727 E. 16th Ave.
Denver, CO 80203
United States
303-279-6536 (Phone)


Paper statistics

Abstract Views