Evaluation of Slum Upgrading Programs: A Literature Review
75 Pages Posted: 4 Aug 2013 Last revised: 13 Dec 2013
Date Written: December 1, 2012
In the last decades the developing world experienced a rapid urbanization of the population. Cities were not prepared to meet the needs of the fast and unplanned growing population and in many cities slums emerged. There have been various types of interventions to deal with the slums problem worldwide: from relocation of slum dwellers to integral interventions, consisting of both infrastructure works and social services targeted to poor neighborhoods. This paper analyses the methods that have been used in a number of upgrading programs and detects the gaps in the literature. To make exposition clear, the programs are divided according to their main outcomes of interest: housing, neighborhood and individual. For each group of outcomes an extensive review of the literature is presented. Also methodological issues regarding implementation and identification strategies for the effects of the interventions are assessed. Finally, the document details some relevant indicators for evaluating slum upgrading programs and suggests avenues for future research.
Keywords: Slum Upgrading, Urban Infrastructure, Policy Evaluation
JEL Classification: R00, O18, I31, I38
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation