Evaluation of Slum Upgrading Programs: A Literature Review

75 Pages Posted: 4 Aug 2013 Last revised: 13 Dec 2013

See all articles by Laura Jaitman

Laura Jaitman

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

Date Written: December 1, 2012


In the last decades the developing world experienced a rapid urbanization of the population. Cities were not prepared to meet the needs of the fast and unplanned growing population and in many cities slums emerged. There have been various types of interventions to deal with the slums problem worldwide: from relocation of slum dwellers to integral interventions, consisting of both infrastructure works and social services targeted to poor neighborhoods. This paper analyses the methods that have been used in a number of upgrading programs and detects the gaps in the literature. To make exposition clear, the programs are divided according to their main outcomes of interest: housing, neighborhood and individual. For each group of outcomes an extensive review of the literature is presented. Also methodological issues regarding implementation and identification strategies for the effects of the interventions are assessed. Finally, the document details some relevant indicators for evaluating slum upgrading programs and suggests avenues for future research.

Keywords: Slum Upgrading, Urban Infrastructure, Policy Evaluation

JEL Classification: R00, O18, I31, I38

Suggested Citation

Jaitman, Laura, Evaluation of Slum Upgrading Programs: A Literature Review (December 1, 2012). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2305396 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2305396

Laura Jaitman (Contact Author)

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) ( email )

1300 New York Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20577
United States

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