Health and the Urban Women in India: Issues and Challenges

1 Pages Posted: 10 Sep 2013

Date Written: September 9, 2013


Even as the international community considers health as a fundamental right and one of the Millennium Development Goals, MDGs, health inequalities weigh heavily against women. This is true in India not just in terms of sex ratio, but also in health facilities and status of girl child and women and their conditions at homes, schools and workplaces. Despite urbanization and modernization, the health infrastructure in general is inadequate; those for women are inaccessible and unaffordable to say the least. Since these are times of increasing socio-cultural, economic and political mobility of women in the urban areas, squeezing space and time for healthy living and working is a matter of concern. Work-life balance, domestic pressures and violence, insecurity of women even in the streets and vehicles, harassment and subjugation are all having a bearing on their health and marginalization. There is therefore, a need for holistic health for women, and their inclusive growth today.

This paper addresses vital issues and challenges to women’s health and gender equity in the urban context. It looks at policy initiatives and alternatives for women’s livelihood security in general and health security in particular.

Keywords: Health, India, marginalisation, security, urban, women

JEL Classification: B54, D63, I14, I15, I18, J28, R50

Suggested Citation

Hans, V. Basil, Health and the Urban Women in India: Issues and Challenges (September 9, 2013). Available at SSRN: or

V. Basil Hans (Contact Author)

St. Aloysius Evening College ( email )

PB. No 720, St Aloysius Evening College
Light House Hill
Mangalore, Karnataka 575 003
0824-2449714 (Phone)

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