아프리카 개발수요와 한국의 분야별 ODA 추진방안 (Analysis on Africa's Development Needs and Korea's Sectorial Plan for ODA)

232 Pages Posted: 10 Oct 2013 Last revised: 17 Oct 2013

See all articles by Young Ho Park

Young Ho Park

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Sungil Kwak

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Jisun Jeong

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Jong-Moon Jang

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Hyelin Jeon

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Date Written: December 31, 2012

Abstract

아프리카에 대한 우리나라의 ODA 규모는 지난 5년간 유·무상을 합쳐 8.6배나 증가하여 2010년에는 4억 5,000만 달러를 넘어섰다. 원조의 이러한 양적 확대 못지않게 중요한 것이 원조의 내실화이다. 이를 위해서는 일차적으로 어느 분야에 우리의 원조 역량을 집중할 것인지에 대한 논의가 필요하다.

이러한 견지에서 본 연구는 아프리카의 개발 수요와 우리나라의 공급 능력을 감안하여 4대 중점협력 분야를 도출하고, 분야별 ODA 추진방안을 살펴보았다. 이를 요약하면 다음과 같다.

첫째, 농업부문으로 아프리카의 농업개발 여건과 우리나라의 공급능력 또는 지원역량 등을 감안하면, 일차적으로 기술협력이나 역량배양 지원에 초점을 맞추는 것이 바람직하다. 아프리카의 농업발전은 단순히 원조자금만으로 해결될 수 없다는 그동안의 역사적 경험을 감안하면, 이들 스스로 자생적으로 농업발전을 주도할 수 있도록 ‘소프트웨어적’ 역량배양 지원이 중요한 부분을 차지할 수밖에 없다. 그 다음으로는 농산물 가공기술을 들 수 있다. 현재 아프리카 대부분의 국가들은 가공시설이 부족하여 농산물을 원료 형태로 수출하고 부가가치가 높은 가공 농산품은 수입에 의존한다. 따라서 농산물 가공훈련 센터나 복합 가공단지 등을 조성하여 농가공산업 육성을 적극 지원할 필요가 있다. 물론 이는 고용 창출, 농가소득 및 수출 증대로 이어진다. 소규모 관개시설을 건설하여 농업 인프라 지원도 계속 확대할 필요가 있다. 아프리카 농업은 빗물에 전적으로 의존하는 천수답으로 가뭄에 속수무책인데, 농업 생산의 안정성을 확보하기 위해서는 무엇보다 물을 안정적으로 공급할 수 있는 장치 마련이 필요하다. 그렇지 않은 상황에서 우수한 개량종자나 새로운 농법 등의 도입은 큰 의미가 없다. 아프리카의 농촌 환경과 우리나라 개발원조의 제약성을 감안하여 저렴한 비용으로 지원할 수 있는 미량관개(micro irrigation) 방법으로 접근하는 것이 필요하다. 이를 위해서는 아프리카 농촌 환경에 대한 정밀한 과학적 진단이 전제되어야 한다. 아프리카의 관개 환경은 일률적이지 않으며 국가 또는 지역에 따라 크게 다르기 때문이다. 어느 지역에서는 호수나 하천 등 수자원이 풍부하여 관개시설 설치를 통해 물을 효율적으로 이용할 수 있는 반면, 다른 지역에서는 전통적인 관개시설 확충이 비경제적이거나 타당성이 크게 떨어진다. 아프리카의 식량 부족과 관련하여 간과할 수 없는 또 하나의 중요한 사실은 ‘수확 후 손실(PHL: Post-harvest losses)’을 들 수 있다. 농작물을 저장할 시설이 부족하다보니 아프리카 농민들은 수확 직후 낮은 가격으로 농산물을 판매해야 하고, 식량부족 기간에 비싼 가격으로 식량을 구입해야 하는 문제에 직면한다. 통상적으로 아프리카 농작물은 수분 함량이 20~30%인 상태에서 수확되기 때문에 각종 해충의 공격을 받고 있으며, 더욱이 수확기에 내리는 비(강우)로 많은 양의 수확물이 소실되는데, 이를 최소화하기 위해서는 저장시설의 확충이 절대적으로 필요하다.

둘째, 환경 분야로 정책 컨설팅을 통한 환경관리 역량 지원을 들 수 있다. 아프리카 대부분의 국가들은 환경문제에 대한 인식 수준이 낮고, 환경관리역량 또한 심각하게 부족하다. 이러한 상황을 감안하여 물질적 지원에 앞서 정책 및 제도 정비, 환경조직 정비, 기술전수 등과 같은 소프트웨어적 역량 강화 지원이 선행되어야 한다. 현재 KOICA와 환경 관련 부처에서는 연수생 초청사업 등 우리의 환경정책 경험과 기술을 전수하는 인적자원개발 사업을 실시해오고 있는데, 환경문제가 빈곤에 미치는 포괄적 성격을 이해하고 이를 확대해나갈 필요가 있다. 우물 개발 및 상수도 공급 등 식수개발 사업도 확대할 필요가 있다. 아프리카에서는 오염된 식수를 그대로 마셔야 하는 상황이 다반사이고 이 때문에 각종 수인성 질병에 그대로 노출되어 있다. 우리나라는 그동안 마을 공동우물개발, 수자원개발 마스터플랜(M/P) 수립 지원, 수질 모니터링 등 개발협력 사업을 전개해왔으며 나름대로 적지 않은 성과를 거두었다. 앞으로는 이들 사업 이외에도 상수도 공급 등 개발협력의 사업 범위를 확대할 필요가 있다. 아프리카에서는 가까운 곳에서 깨끗하고 풍부한 우물물이나 하천수를 얻기가 어렵게 때문에 먼 곳에 있는 물을 다량으로 공급할 수 있는 상수도가 필요할 수밖에 없다. 특히 도시 또는 그 주변 지역으로 인구 유입이 가속화되면서 대규모 밀집지역이 빠르게 생겨나는데, 이 지역 주민들에게 물을 공급하기 위해서는 상수망의 확충이 절대적으로 필요하다. 오폐수 및 폐기물 처리 지원도 절대적으로 중요하다. 아프리카는 도시화가 빠르게 진행되면서 인구 밀집지역을 중심으로 오폐수와 폐기물이 넘쳐나고 있으나, 하수 처리시설과 폐기물 처리시설이 절대적으로 부족하여 하천으로 방류하거나 길거리 등에 그대로 방치하고 있다. 따라서 사람들은 오염된 물을 식수로 사용할 수밖에 없는데 이것이 보건과 건강에 직접 위협이 되고 있다. 인구의 도시 집중화 현상이 가속화되면서 폐기물도 급증하는데, 아프리카 대부분의 국가들은 이를 처리할 능력이 없어 여러 전염병이 창궐하고 있다. 우리나라의 폐기물 처리기술은 비교적 경쟁력이 높은 것으로 평가된다. 폐기물 처리 중에서 비교우위가 높은 분야로는 소각로, 고체 폐기물 처리, 폐기물 재활용 기술을 꼽고 있다. 또한 폐수처리 설비, 여과기 등의 분야에서도 선진국에 근접한 수준의 기술력을 확보하고 있다. 그동안 우리나라는 동남아시아, 중국, 중동 등 여러 나라에서 오폐수 및 폐기물 처리 사업을 유상원조(EDCF)로 실시한 경험이 있다.

The total amount of official development assistance (ODA) that South Korea has made to Africa, including grants and loans, exceeded USD 450 million as of 2010. Despite the impressive growth in the quantity of ODA funding, not much detailed analysis has been done on the quality of Korean ODA projects in Africa. The quality of Korea’s ODA for Africa can be enhanced once we identify which areas or sectors of development cooperation Korea should focus on in providing them.

In recognition of this growing need, this study identifies the four core areas of development cooperation between South Korea and Africa in light of Africa’s needs and Korea’s capacity to provide. It also makes a series of proposals on how to increase and execute ODA for each area.

First, in agriculture, Korea should focus primarily on enhancing technical cooperation and capability development in Africa given the state of agricultural development on the continent and Korea’s assistance capacity. We must heed the historical lesson that agricultural advancement in Africa will simply not happen through material aid alone. Rather, it requires such “software” components of support for the development of Africans’ own capabilities, which is just as important.

Another important agricultural issue that warrants attention is food processing technology. Most countries in Africa presently lack adequate processing facilities and are thus compelled to export raw crops, relying heavily on imports for highly processed food products with higher added value. It is thus necessary to support and foster the growth of an agricultural processing industry in Africa, by providing help in developing requisite training centers and processing industry clusters. This will lead to more jobs and higher incomes for Africans and an increasing volume of exports from the continent. Increasing support for the expansion of agricultural infrastructure, including microirrigation facilities, also needs to be considered. The vast majority of farms in Africa still rely solely on natural rainfall for irrigation and thus are extremely vulnerable to droughts. In order to ensure the stability of agricultural production, it is of paramount importance to develop facilities and systems of reliable water supplies. Otherwise, attempts to introduce enhanced varieties or new agricultural techniques would end in vain. Given the present conditions of agriculture in Africa and the limited development assistance that Korea can provide, Korea should concentrate on supporting the expansion of microirrigation facilities that can be achieved at a relatively smaller cost.

This approach will require Korea first and foremost to make a precise and scientific assessment of farming conditions in Africa. The status of irrigation varies greatly in Africa from country to country or region to region. Some regions boast rich reservoirs of water resources, such as lakes and rivers, and can easily benefit from installation of irrigation facilities. Others, however, lack the requisite natural conditions to make the expansion of irrigation systems effective or feasible.

Another important factor accountable for chronic shortages of food supplies in Africa involves postharvest losses (PHLs). The lack of facilities to store harvested crops forces African farmers to sell their crops at very low prices immediately after harvesting, and to purchase food supplies at much higher prices during hard times. In addition, because much of the crops in Africa are harvested when their water content reaches 20-30%, they are especially susceptible to vermin prevalent amid heavy rainfalls during the harvest season. In order to minimize these postharvest losses, it is crucial to provide a greater number of storage facilities for African farmers.

Second, Korea can also benefit Africa by directing its ODA toward enhancing the continent’s capability for environmental management through environmental policy control. Most African states not only lack adequate capability for environmental management, but are also far less aware of the critical nature of environmental problems than countries in the developed world. Korea may provide not only material support but also such “software” forms of support as consulting on policy, systems, and organizations; in addition to transfer of technology. The Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the ministry of environment now provide a human resources development program that invites officials and participants from developing countries to Korea to learn about Korea’s experience with environmental policy and technology. It is thus important to recognize the comprehensive nature of impacts that environmental problems can have on poverty, and expand the range and scope of assistance accordingly.

At the same time, it is equally important to provide aid for the development of potable water supplies by digging more wells and installing more waterworks. Being deprived of these facilities, Africans are forced to drink polluted water, which leaves them more vulnerable to various waterborne diseases. Koreans have so far actively supported digging communal wells, developing master plans for water resources development, and implementing systems for monitoring water quality. These projects have yielded significant results. Korea now needs to take the success of these projects to the next level and expand the range of assistance to include the development of waterworks and other such facilities. As a majority of Africans have difficulty finding clean sources of potable water near their neighborhoods, it is urgent to develop waterworks that can bring clean water from faraway locations into their communities and workplaces.

The accelerated pace of population influx into urban and surrounding areas has led to the formation of mass slums. It is impossible to provide residents of these slums with reliable supplies of water without expanding the existing network of waterworks and without expansion of systems for treating wastewater and garbage. The rapid pace of urbanization in Africa has led to frequent flooding of populated areas by wastewater and refuse. The absolute shortage of facilities for treating wastewater and waste materials compels residents to discharge trash into nearby river systems or leave them on the street. These, in turn, have directly led to deterioration of public sanitation and health. The accumulating piles of trash in the streets create ripe conditions for the spread of numerous contagious diseases. Korea boasts advanced technologies for the disposal of waste materials. In particular, Korea is well known for its technologies and systems for incineration, solid waste disposal, and waste material recycling. The quality of Korea’s wastewater treatment facilities and filters is on par with that of systems found in other advanced countries. Moreover, Korea has experience of successfully undertaking wastewater and material treatment projects in Southeast Asia, China, and the Middle East, providing these countries with concessional loans from its Economic Development Cooperation Fund (EDCF).

Third, Korea can also channel its ODA toward developing and expanding public infrastructure in Africa. Public infrastructure is almost nonexistent in Africa, and figures directly into continuing poverty on the continent. Public infrastructure is essential for the support of pro-poor and sustainable growth, as it would contribute greatly to economic and social development by cutting the costs of production and logistics. Lacking these crucial public goods, Africa has struggled for decades with the elusive goal of development. The problem is made worse because almost 40% of the entire population of Africa is concentrated in the fifteen or so inland countries. While numerous governments in Africa have sought to promote the development of public infrastructure, their attempts have come up short so far due to overwhelming financial difficulties. While these governments desperately try to secure greater amounts of private capital and investments, their efforts have not been successful except in telecommunications, due to relatively shorter payback periods and higher return rates. Projects for developing roads, railways, harbors, airports, and power facilities tend to entail longer payback periods and greater risks, and thus do not have as much appeal to foreign investors. With the exception of a handful of countries, most countries in Africa have low sovereign credit ratings, which makes it all the more difficult for their governments to secure adequate funding in the international financial market. Given these grim obstacles facing Africa today, it is unreasonable to expect the Korean export credit agency to single-handedly handle public infrastructure development on that continent. It would be wiser to expand the range of financial assistance for public infrastructure development in Africa through co-financing with other institutions worldwide with ample experience and expertise, such as the multilateral development banks (MDBs), bilateral development finance institutions (DFIs), and the like.

Another key issue is overcoming the chronic shortage of electricity by developing new and renewable energy and expanding transmission networks. Of the sources of new and renewable energy, the most feasible for development in Africa at present is solar energy. Solar energy is preferred because, once installed, it incurs little additional or overhead costs. The Korean government has recently provided EDCF loans for the development of sunlight power plants in Mozambique and Ethiopia. Korea needs to build upon its experience of successful ODA for energy in Africa by extending the benefits to other African states. Assistance for energy development should also include support for the expansion of transmission networks. Not only does Africa lack proper power plants, but it also suffers from an absolute shortage of infrastructure that can reliably deliver electricity to households. Korea has so far provided EDCF loans for the development and expansion of transmission networks in Tanzania, Ghana, and Ethiopia.

Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.

Keywords: Foreign Aid, ODA, Official Development Assistance, Development cooperation, Africa

Suggested Citation

Park, Young Ho and Kwak, Sungil and Jeong, Jisun and Jang, Jong-Moon and Jeon, Hyelin, 아프리카 개발수요와 한국의 분야별 ODA 추진방안 (Analysis on Africa's Development Needs and Korea's Sectorial Plan for ODA) (December 31, 2012). KIEP Research Paper No. Policy Analysis-12-40. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2338331 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2338331

Young Ho Park (Contact Author)

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Sungil Kwak

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Jisun Jeong

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Jong-Moon Jang

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Hyelin Jeon

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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