Brain Activity of Normal and Low IQ Children: The Neural Efficiency Hypothesis
40 Pages Posted: 16 Oct 2013
Date Written: October 15, 2013
The neural efficiency hypothesis (NEH) of intelligence claims that subjects performing a complex task may well use a limited number of brain circuits and/or fewer neurons while poor performers use more circuits and/or neurons, some of which are inessential or detrimental to task performance. The present paper studies the EEG activity associated with reading and arithmetic calculation by normal and mental retarded children. Correlation analysis of the electrical activity recorded by 10/20 electrode system was used to calculate the amount of information allocated by individuals to solve these tasks. Multiple regression analyses showed that IQ linearly correlates with the amount of information provided by each electrode about task solution. This analysis also shows that normal children allocate an amount of computational resources H(B)n greater than that allocated by mental retarded children H(B)l to solve both reading and calculation task. Most important, it is shown that H(B)l < H(T) < H(B)n what means that mental retarded children allocate less and normal children allocate more computational resources than the task uncertainty H(T) . This shows that neural efficiency is bound by task uncertainty, such that intelligence increases as H(T)/H(B) approaches 1 and decreases otherwise. Although the different genders were shown to use different neural circuits to solve the same task, these differences are equally effective and did not resulted in IQ differences.
Keywords: intelligence, EEG, brain mapping, Neural efficienty, intelligent distributed systems
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