Territoriality in Search of Principles and Revenue: Camp and Enzi

36 Pages Posted: 16 Oct 2013

See all articles by Stephen E. Shay

Stephen E. Shay

Boston College Law School

J. Clifton Fleming

Brigham Young University - J. Reuben Clark Law School

Robert J. Peroni

University of Texas at Austin - School of Law

Date Written: October 14, 2013


This article reviews proposals by House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Camp and Senator Mike Enzi to shift the United States from its current system of deferring taxation of active foreign income to a system that would exempt foreign business income from U.S. tax. (Neither proposal would materially affect the present U.S. system for taxing U.S.-source income.) The major contributions of the Camp Proposal lie in its recognition of the need to (i) make the treatment of foreign branches and foreign subsidiaries more neutral, and (ii) protect the U.S. tax base from excess interest deductions and the base-eroding incentives of very low foreign tax environments that stimulate U.S. income shifting. However, these improvements to current law would not justify changing to an exemption regime under the Camp Proposal in light of its many weaknesses, which include (but are not limited to) (i) material under-allocation of expenses to exempt foreign income, (ii) material loopholes in its anti-abuse rules for protecting the U.S. tax base, (iii) an apparent failure to tax gain upon transfers of appreciated assets into the exemption regime, (iv) foreign tax credit changes that would result in additional erosion of the U.S. tax base and (v) a misguided proposal for a reduced tax rate on royalties earned from foreign persons. The Enzi Proposal has similar weaknesses while lacking the strengths of the Camp Proposal.

Our analysis of the Camp and Enzi Proposals highlights that U.S. international tax reform is integrally related to U.S. corporate, shareholder and business pass-through taxation. A full consideration of any international business taxation proposal must be in the context of the overall income tax regime within which the international rules must operate. Chairman Camp has promised a comprehensive tax reform proposal; and business and financial products elements have been put forward. However, a final evaluation of his international proposal must await release of a completed, integrated tax reform package, including final corporate and individual tax rates. Senator Enzi’s proposal is a stand-alone reform and apparently is intended for adoption irrespective whether the corporate tax rate is reduced or other tax reforms are enacted.

In a recent article we articulated how a principled exemption system should be designed so as to protect the U.S tax base. It is possible to modify the Camp and Enzi Proposals to address their weaknesses in ways consistent with a principled exemption system. We recognize that such changes would make them unattractive to many in the multinational corporate community; however, that likely is true of any exemption system that would be a material improvement over current law. In our view, unless a shift to an exemption system would constitute a material improvement over current law, the likely revenue losses and transition costs of such a change would outweigh the benefits.

Keywords: Income Taxation, International Taxation, Territorial Taxation, Tax Reform

JEL Classification: F02, F23, H25, K34

Suggested Citation

Shay, Stephen E. and Fleming, J. Clifton and Peroni, Robert Joseph, Territoriality in Search of Principles and Revenue: Camp and Enzi (October 14, 2013). 141 Tax Notes 173, 72 Tax Notes International 155, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2340615

Stephen E. Shay

Boston College Law School ( email )

140 Commonwealth Avenue
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
United States

J. Clifton Fleming (Contact Author)

Brigham Young University - J. Reuben Clark Law School ( email )

430 JRCB
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT 84602
United States

Robert Joseph Peroni

University of Texas at Austin - School of Law ( email )

727 East Dean Keeton Street
Austin, TX 78705
United States

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