Machine Speech

39 Pages Posted: 10 Nov 2013

See all articles by Tim Wu

Tim Wu

Columbia University - Law School

Date Written: May 1, 2013


Computers are making an increasing number of important decisions in our lives. They fly airplanes, navigate traffic, and even recommend books. In the process, computers reason through automated algorithms and constantly send and receive information, sometimes in ways that mimic human expression. When can such communications, called here “algorithmic outputs,” claim First Amendment protection?

Keywords: First Amendment

Suggested Citation

Wu, Tim, Machine Speech (May 1, 2013). 161 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1495 , University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 161, No. 1495, 2013, Available at SSRN:

Tim Wu (Contact Author)

Columbia University - Law School ( email )

435 West 116th Street
New York, NY 10025
United States

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