Male-Female Differences in Labor Market Outcomes During the Early Transition to Market: The Cases of Estonia and Slovenia

Posted: 5 Feb 2001

See all articles by Peter F. Orazem

Peter F. Orazem

Iowa State University and IZA; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Milan Vodopivec

World Bank - Human Development Network; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Abstract

Changes in women's relative wages and employment are analyzed, using social security data from Slovenia (1987-1992) and a retrospective labor force survey in Estonia (1989-1994). Estonia adopted liberal labor market policies. Slovenia took an interventionist approach. Nevertheless, relative wages for women rose in both countries. Factors favoring women included: returns to human capital rose in transition, benefiting women; relative labor demand shifted toward predominantly female sectors; low-wage women had a disproportionate incentive to exit the labor market, especially in Estonia. However, women were less mobile across jobs in both countries, so men disproportionately filled new jobs in expanding sectors.

Keywords: Employment, earnings, transition, labor policy, gender

JEL Classification: J21, J31

Suggested Citation

Orazem, Peter Francis and Vodopivec, Milan, Male-Female Differences in Labor Market Outcomes During the Early Transition to Market: The Cases of Estonia and Slovenia. Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 13, Issue 2, 2000, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=235435

Peter Francis Orazem (Contact Author)

Iowa State University and IZA ( email )

260 Heady Hall
Ames, IA 50011
United States
515-294-8656/515-294-7740 (Phone)
515-294-0221 (Fax)

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Milan Vodopivec

World Bank - Human Development Network ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

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