Four Decades of Federal Civil Rights Litigation

Theodore Eisenberg

Cornell University, Law School (Deceased)

November 14, 2013

Cornell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 14-01

Civil rights cases constitute a substantial fraction of the federal civil docket but that fraction has substantially declined from historic peaks. Trial outcomes, as in other areas of law, constitute a small fraction of case terminations and have changed over time. The number of employment discrimination trials before judges has been in decline for about 30 years, a trend also evident in contract and tort cases. The number of employment trials before juries increased substantially after the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1991 but has been in decline since 1997. In constitutional tort cases, the number of judge trials has been declining for about 30 years; the number of jury trials has been reasonably constant over that time period. Civil rights plaintiff win rates at trial have been steady in both judge trials and jury trials for at least a decade. The success of civil rights litigation, as measured by trial win rates and settlement rates, has been quite low compared to contract and tort cases. Median awards in civil rights trials have increased more than the rate of inflation but median trial awards in both constitutional tort cases and employment cases are below the awards in contract cases and tort cases.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 24

Keywords: Civil Rights, Litigation, Employment Discrimination, Trials, Juries, Judges, Damages

JEL Classification: K1, K10, K31, K40, K41

Open PDF in Browser Download This Paper

Date posted: November 15, 2013 ; Last revised: December 23, 2013

Suggested Citation

Eisenberg, Theodore, Four Decades of Federal Civil Rights Litigation (November 14, 2013). Cornell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 14-01. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2354386 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2354386

Contact Information

Theodore Eisenberg (Contact Author)
Cornell University, Law School (Deceased) ( email )
Myron Taylor Hall
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853-4901
United States

Feedback to SSRN

Paper statistics
Abstract Views: 1,488
Downloads: 315
Download Rank: 74,587