After Capitalism: Cyborgism. A Contribution to the Critique of Historical Materialism. Actualized Second Digital Version.

108 Pages Posted: 10 Dec 2013 Last revised: 13 Oct 2018

See all articles by Fernando Flores Morador

Fernando Flores Morador

Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación; University of Alcalá; University of Alcala - Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación

Date Written: October 08, 2018


This second digital edition includes my research from 2013 until November 2015. There are many important changes from de first version. This version introduces the Technocratic Mode of Production based on the exploitation of the consumers. It includes a complete description of the cyborg society as it is today, the new castes that constitute it and the economic acts that regulate the new Mode of Production. Many of the new conclusions are derived from my current research which in a more didactical approach considers “order” at the center of the historical analysis instead of the vaguer concept of “information”. Our standpoint become clearer explaining better the primacy of knowledge and experience over ideology. Knowledge and experience for us are constituting aspects of the Civil Society -and therefore “irreversible” aspects of history- while ideology belongs to the political sphere, submitted to the changes of temporal and reversible acts. The immediate consequence of our standpoint is that the limits of history are Natural history; a Natural history which is driven by knowledge and experience and not by “ideological struggles” related to “class struggle”. In other words, the struggle for the constitution of a cyborg is prior and stronger than any other social struggle.

Lund, November 2015.

_________________________ This book is a personal answer to the crisis of the left. The author of this texts belongs to a generation habituated to live with global explanations. For Marx and Engels society was originally organized around the family (the women, men and children) that formed clans or tribes and finally constituted ethnic groups. With the development of the means of production this archaic society converted into a class society, where blood ties were replaced by political ties. Since, the family, the clan and the ethnic group pass to play a secondary role in the development of history. Quite the contrary, my research has shown that social classes are actually an extension of the family, the clan and the ethnic group. For example, the slaveholding society emerges with the enslavement of the ethnic foreigner. This is very clearly documented for example in the Bible: “Your male and female slaves are to come from the nations around you; from them you may buy slaves. You may also buy some of the temporary residents living among you and members of their clans born in your country, and they will become your property. You can bequeath them to your children as inherited property and can make them slaves for life, but you must not rule over your fellow Israelites ruthlessly. (Leviticus 25:44-46).

It is documented that the ethnic groups of slaves from Antiquity were the people that constitute the class of medieval serfs in Europe and that later the same group was the source for the individuals that constituted the working class of capitalism. In short, the social classes that had arisen in different periods of history are kin to each other; they have the same genetic bank. The same can be said of the dominant groups. That is way we say that the exploiting and the exploited “classes” actually behave as "castes".

This conclusion tells us that the “class struggle" only renames the exploited and the exploiter keeping more or less unchanged the power relations between these macro-ethnic groups. If what we want is to put an end to the "exploitation of man by man" it will be necessary to put an end to the "struggle of castes" avoiding promoting it, as it has been done until now. Parallel to the “struggle of castes”, history shows the development of a civil society, which is the expression of the experience acquired by humanity. History shows that knowledge is irreversible; that which men and women once learned, will be a part of the experience of every new generation. This civil society has established and developed the powers that will put an end to the exploitation of man by man. The civil society is characterized by being "artificial" in the sense that is independent of the “real caste” of society. Its artificiality consists on ignoring the biological laws governing family, the clan and the ethnic group, elaborating social laws in which arguments based on reason prevails and tames the biological instinctive impulses of the archaic human. Let us ask ourselves the question of Lenin: What to do? The fundamental tasks are then to reinforce the civil society, to strengthen all the aspects of social life in which the "human being" enforced the "ethnic being". We must understand that each human group (e.g. political parties, the Trade Unions, academic groups, companies, etc.) tends to perpetuate itself by reinforcing their blood ties. This trend must be combated by opening society to the defense of human rights in general, promoting the right to work, to health, to education but also and especially to the defense of the rights of the individual against the rights of the group. It must be promoted the equality between the sexes, the defense of the right to sexual freedom, to abortion, and to any form of family, including the family constituted by homosexuals. In general it is necessary to support all actions that remove the basic structures of the castes. This should be integrated into political agency and must be a part of the activities of the Trade Unions, understanding that the fight against the exploitation does not pass by changing the form of exploitation, but in changing a society based on exploitation with a society based on collaboration. We believe that this emerging human being will be a "cyborg", understanding with this that the new man and woman will be a product of history and culture, and therefore less a simple animal.

December 2013

Suggested Citation

Flores Morador, Fernando, After Capitalism: Cyborgism. A Contribution to the Critique of Historical Materialism. Actualized Second Digital Version. (October 08, 2018). Available at SSRN: or

Fernando Flores Morador (Contact Author)

Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación ( email )

Plaza de la Victoria, 2.
Alcala de Henares, Madrid 28801

University of Alcalá ( email )


University of Alcala - Departamento de Ciencias de la Computación ( email )

Alcalá, Madrid

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