Review of Recent Studies Dealing with Techniques for Classroom Interaction
Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), USA, 1997
29 Pages Posted: 11 Dec 2013 Last revised: 10 Sep 2016
Date Written: 1997
Theory and research on techniques for second language classrooms are reviewed in five areas: the scaffolding technique; questioning techniques; cooperative learning; techniques for promoting student interaction with text (reading instruction); and error correction. It is concluded that: (1) while there is some conflicting evidence, the majority of studies reviewed support the notion that reciprocal teaching improves reading and listening skills and fosters positive student attitudes toward reading; (2) studies of questioning show that teacher questions promote classroom interaction when open-ended, challenging, and interpretational, increasing teacher wait time after questions improves the quality and quantity of interaction, teacher encouragement and immediacy increase student questions, and the number of student questions in student/student interaction is much greater than in teacher/student interaction; (3) allowing students to interact freely in cooperative learning without close monitoring improves language skills; (4) heterogeneous grouping promotes interaction of low-ability students; (5) task differences influences interaction among group members; (6) interaction with prior knowledge and student-generated questions improve reading comprehension; and (7) error correction, even computer-generated, improves learning.
Keywords: Classroom Communication; Classroom Environment; Cooperative Learning; Error Correction; Interaction; Questioning Techniques; Reading Instruction; Scaffolding
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