Are There Ethnic Inequality Traps in Education? Empirical Evidence for Brazil and Chile

PEP Working Paper serie 2012-05

55 Pages Posted: 21 May 2018 Last revised: 11 Jul 2018

See all articles by Guillermo Cruces

Guillermo Cruces

Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS); IZA

Marcelo Bergolo

Universidad de la Republica - Instituto de Economía; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Adriana Conconi

Independent

Andrés Ham

Universidad de los Andes, Colombia - School of Government

Date Written: June 1, 2012

Abstract

This study searches for suggestive evidence of an ethnic inequality trap in educational attainment in Brazil and Chile. The research aims to cover an existing gap in the literature on inequality traps and proposes an empirical approach to assess certain conditions which might imply its existence. The main results indicate that while average education and upward mobility have risen in both countries, ethnic disparities remain significant. In particular, the evidence is suggestive of an educational inequality trap for Afro-Brazilians, while the findings are less conclusive of a trap for indigenous individuals in Chile. These results reflect the need for targeted education policies for ethnic groups in two ways: compensation (or affirmative action) mechanisms to lower current inequality, and increasing demand and supply at higher educational levels to prevent the persistence of low level outcomes and disparities throughout the educational distribution.

Keywords: inequality trap, education, ethnicity, opportunities, mobility, Brazil, Chile

JEL Classification: D3, I2, J15, J62, O54

Suggested Citation

Cruces, Guillermo and Bergolo, Marcelo and Conconi, Adriana and Ham, Andrés, Are There Ethnic Inequality Traps in Education? Empirical Evidence for Brazil and Chile (June 1, 2012). PEP Working Paper serie 2012-05. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2367377 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2367377

Guillermo Cruces (Contact Author)

Universidad Nacional de La Plata - Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS) ( email )

Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y
Sociales, Calle 6 e/47 y 48
La Plata, Provincia de Buenos Aires 1900
Argentina

HOME PAGE: http://cedlas.econo.unlp.edu.ar

IZA

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Marcelo Bergolo

Universidad de la Republica - Instituto de Economía ( email )

Montevideo
Uruguay

HOME PAGE: http://www.iecon.ccee.edu.uy

IZA Institute of Labor Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

Adriana Conconi

Independent ( email )

No Address Available

Andrés Ham

Universidad de los Andes, Colombia - School of Government ( email )

Cra 1. No. 19 - 27. Bloque Aulas Tercer piso
Bogotá D.C.
Colombia

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