The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and Its Impact on Entrepreneurship Research

118 Pages Posted: 18 Jan 2014

See all articles by Niels Bosma

Niels Bosma

Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics; Vlerick Business School

Date Written: 2013


The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is a project carried out by a research consortium dedicated to understanding the relationship between entrepreneurship and national economic development. Since 1999, GEM reports have been a key source of comparable data across a large variety of countries on attitudes toward entrepreneurship, start-up and established business activities, and aspirations of entrepreneurs for their businesses. The growing databases increasingly allow for in-depth academic research and this is mirrored by the rapidly increasing amount of GEM-based scientific publications in a wider range of academic journals. At this point, it is appropriate to provide an overview on these publications, to summarize their main contributions and to provide some directions for obtaining promising GEM-based academic contributions in the future. This publication provides a review of 89 GEM-based academic publications in SSCI-listed journals since 2004, with the objectives to highlight the particular advantages of GEM data, their quality and usability, as well as their limitations. It also recommends a number of ways in which the GEM project might evolve further and make more impact on entrepreneurship research, on entrepreneurship policy and practice, and ultimately on getting more grip on the complex relation between entrepreneurship and economic development.

Keywords: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Entrepreneurial Activity, Economic Development

JEL Classification: E02, J24, L26, O11

Suggested Citation

Bosma, Niels, The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and Its Impact on Entrepreneurship Research (2013). Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship Vol. 9, No. 2, 2013, Available at SSRN:

Niels Bosma (Contact Author)

Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics ( email )

Vredenburg 138
Utrecht, 3511 BG


Vlerick Business School ( email )

Gent, BE-9000

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