Impact of Private Tutoring on Learning Levels: Evidence from India

34 Pages Posted: 26 Feb 2014 Last revised: 2 Jul 2015

See all articles by Ambrish A. Dongre

Ambrish A. Dongre

Indian Institute of Management

Vibhu Tewary

Center for Policy Research (India)

Date Written: April 10, 2015

Abstract

Despite widespread and substantial private expenditure on private tutoring outside the formal school system in many developing countries, not much is known about their effects on learning outcomes. The main challenge in estimating such an effect is that the decision to send the child for private tutoring is correlated with unobserved variables which are also correlated with learning outcomes.

This paper utilizes a large household survey conducted in rural India, and employs Fixed Effect (FE) estimation to control for the effect of unobserved variables. We find positive and significant effect of private tutoring on learning outcomes for students at elementary level (grades 1-8). This effect is equivalent to an additional year of schooling or being in a private school instead of a government school. The effect is stronger for the students enrolled in government schools compared to the students enrolled in private schools, for children from economically disadvantaged background, and for children whose parents are relatively less educated.

These are, to our knowledge, the first estimates of impact of private tutoring on learning outcomes in the Indian context.

Keywords: Private tutoring, India

JEL Classification: I20, I21

Suggested Citation

Dongre, Ambrish A. and Tewary, Vibhu, Impact of Private Tutoring on Learning Levels: Evidence from India (April 10, 2015). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2401475 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2401475

Ambrish A. Dongre (Contact Author)

Indian Institute of Management ( email )

Vastrapur
Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380 015
India

Vibhu Tewary

Center for Policy Research (India) ( email )

Dharma Marg
Chanakyapuri
New Delhi, 110022
India

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