Employee Propensity to Withhold Effort: A Conceptual Model to Intersect Three Avenues of Research

Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 3: 429-456, 1993

29 Pages Posted: 11 Mar 2014

See all articles by Roland E. Kidwell

Roland E. Kidwell

Niagara University

Nathan Bennett

Georgia Institute of Technology - Organizational Behavior Area; J. Mack Robinson College of Business

Date Written: July 1, 1993

Abstract

Shirking, social loafing, and free riding are concepts that have guided the recent study of how much effort employees provide on the job. Although researchers have generally treated these concepts as distinct, a common thread underlies them, that is, propensity to withhold effort (PWE). The main difference among the three concepts is the context in which or the reasons why withholding effort occurs. Building on these ideas, this article applies Knoke's (1990) synthesized motivation model to PWE and suggests that rational, normative, and affective bonding incentives may play a role in employee PWE. Using the model, this article reconceptualizes and attempts to clarify past theory and research, and it develops hypotheses to direct future research on PWE in work groups.

Suggested Citation

Kidwell, Roland E. and Bennett, Nathan, Employee Propensity to Withhold Effort: A Conceptual Model to Intersect Three Avenues of Research (July 1, 1993). Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 3: 429-456, 1993, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2406779

Roland E. Kidwell

Niagara University ( email )

Niagara University, NY 14109
United States

Nathan Bennett (Contact Author)

Georgia Institute of Technology - Organizational Behavior Area ( email )

800 West Peachtree St.
Atlanta, GA 30308
United States

J. Mack Robinson College of Business ( email )

P.O. Box 4050
Atlanta, GA 30303-3083
United States

HOME PAGE: http://nate-bennett.com

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