Biomarkers and Long-Term Labour Market Outcomes: The Case of Creatine

33 Pages Posted: 15 Mar 2014

See all articles by Petri Bockerman

Petri Bockerman

Labour Institute for Economic Research; University of Turku - Turku School of Economics

Alex Bryson

UCL; National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR)

Jutta Viinikainen

University of Jyväskylä

Christian Hakulinen

University of Helsinki

Laura Pulkki-Raback

University of Helsinki

Olli Raitakari

University of Turku

Abstract

Using the Young Finns Study (YFS) combined with the Finnish Linked Employer-Employee Data (FLEED) we show that quantities of creatine measured in 1980 prior to labour market entry affect labour market outcomes over the period 1990-2010. Those with higher levels of creatine (proxied by urine creatinine) prior to labour market entry spend more time in the labour market in the subsequent two decades and earn more. Creatine is not associated with high educational attainment. The associations between creatine and labour market outcomes are robust to controlling for other biomarkers, educational attainment and parental background. Creatine is a naturally occurring nitrogenous organic acid which supplies energy to body cells, including muscles. Our findings are consistent with high energy levels, induced by creatine, leading to productivity-enhancing traits such as a high propensity for effort, perseverance, and high-commitment.

Keywords: biomarkers, creatine, creatinine, labour market, earnings, employment

JEL Classification: J24, J31, I12

Suggested Citation

Bockerman, Petri and Bryson, Alex and Viinikainen, Jutta and Hakulinen, Christian and Pulkki-Raback, Laura and Raitakari, Olli, Biomarkers and Long-Term Labour Market Outcomes: The Case of Creatine. IZA Discussion Paper No. 8029. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2409551

Petri Bockerman (Contact Author)

Labour Institute for Economic Research ( email )

FIN-00530 Helsinki
Finland
+358 9 2535 7332 (Phone)
+358 9 2535 7332 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.petribockerman.fi/

University of Turku - Turku School of Economics ( email )

Rehtorinpellonkatu 3
TURKU, FI-20500
Finland

Alex Bryson

UCL ( email )

20 Bedford Way
London, WC1H 0AL
United Kingdom

National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) ( email )

2 Dean Trench Street
Smith Square
London, SW1P 3HE
United Kingdom

HOME PAGE: http://www.niesr.ac.uk/staff/staffdetail.php?StaffID=307

Jutta Viinikainen

University of Jyväskylä ( email )

Seminaarinkatu 30
Jyväskylä, 40100
Finland

Christian Hakulinen

University of Helsinki ( email )

University of Helsinki
Helsinki, FIN-00014
Finland

Laura Pulkki-Raback

University of Helsinki

University of Helsinki
Helsinki, FIN-00014
Finland

Olli Raitakari

University of Turku

Turku, 20014
Finland

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