This is Your Sword: How Damaging are Prior Convictions to Plaintiffs in Civil Trials?

61 Pages Posted: 22 Mar 2014 Last revised: 15 Nov 2014

See all articles by Kathryn Stanchi

Kathryn Stanchi

University of Nevada, Las Vegas, William S. Boyd School of Law

Deirdre M. Bowen, J.D., Ph.D.

Seattle University School of Law

Date Written: March 1, 2014

Abstract

The conventional wisdom in law is that a prior conviction is one of the most powerful and damaging pieces of evidence that can be offered against a witness or party. In the legal lore, prior convictions seriously undercut the credibility of the witness and can derail the outcome of a trial. This paper suggests that may not always be true.

This paper details the results of an empirical study of juror decision-making that challenges the conventional wisdom about prior convictions. In our study, the prior conviction evidence did not have a direct impact on the outcome of the civil trial or the credibility of the witness with the conviction. Moreover, we tested prior conviction evidence with a white witness and an African-American witness and saw no difference in results.

The prior conviction evidence did, however, change the trial in a substantial, but indirect, way. Rather than the direct effect on outcome that we might have expected, the introduction of the prior conviction evidence changed the mental decision-making process of the jurors. Specifically, the evidence seemed to subconsciously lead the jurors to conclude that to decide liability, they had to believe one party over the other. The prior conviction evidence thus turned the trial into a zero sum credibility contest in which believing the plaintiff’s story meant disbelieving the defendant’s (and vice versa). This “zero sum” effect did not appear in the control version of the trial.

In sum, the results of our experiment suggest that while prior convictions are highly noticeable and powerful pieces of evidence, they may not always be the bane that lawyers think they are. Nevertheless, the introduction of this evidence has the potential to change a civil trial by changing the juror decision-making process.

Keywords: persuasion, trial advocacy, prior crimes evidence, prior conviction, empirical research, evidence

JEL Classification: K14, K41, K42

Suggested Citation

Stanchi, Kathryn and Bowen, Deirdre M., This is Your Sword: How Damaging are Prior Convictions to Plaintiffs in Civil Trials? (March 1, 2014). Washington Law Review, Vol. 89, 2014; Temple University Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-14. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2412110

Kathryn Stanchi (Contact Author)

University of Nevada, Las Vegas, William S. Boyd School of Law ( email )

4505 South Maryland Parkway
Box 451003
Las Vegas, NV 89154
United States

Deirdre M. Bowen

Seattle University School of Law ( email )

206.398.4289 (Phone)

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