Preconditioning as a Potential Strategy for the Prevention of Parkinson's Disease

42 Pages Posted: 8 Apr 2014 Last revised: 19 Aug 2014

See all articles by Mojtaba Golpich

Mojtaba Golpich

Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Behrouz Rahmani

Neuroscience Research Center

Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim

National University of Malaysia (UKM)

Leila Dargahi

Shahid Beheshti University

Zahurin Mohamed

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine

Azman Ali Raymond

National University of Malaysia (UKM)

Abolhassan Ahmadiani

Neuroscience Research Center

Date Written: April 3, 2014

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive and massive loss of dopaminergic neurons by neuronal apoptosis in the substantia nigra pars compacta and depletion of dopamine in the striatum, which lead to pathological and clinical abnormalities. A numerous of cellular processes including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates are considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. A further understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of PD is crucial for developing effective diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic strategies to cure this devastating disorder. Preconditioning (PC) is assumed as a natural adaptive process whereby a subthreshold stimulus can promote protection against a subsequent lethal stimulus in the brain as well as in other tissues that affords robust brain tolerance facing neurodegenerative insults. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that preconditioning as a possible neuroprotective technique may reduce the neural deficits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Throughout the last few decades, a lot of efforts have been made to discover the molecular determinants involved in preconditioning-induced protective responses; although, the accurate mechanisms underlying this “tolerance” phenomenon are not fully understood in PD. In this review, we will summarize pathophysiology and current therapeutic approaches in PD and discuss about preconditioning in PD as a potential neuroprotective strategy. Also the role of gene reprogramming and mitochondrial biogenesis involved in the preconditioning-mediated neuroprotective events will be highlighted. Preconditioning may represent a promising therapeutic weapon to combat neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, Preconditioning, Oxidative stress, Mitochondrial dysfunction

Suggested Citation

Golpich, Mojtaba and Rahmani, Behrouz and Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah and Dargahi, Leila and Mohamed, Zahurin and Raymond, Azman Ali and Ahmadiani, Abolhassan, Preconditioning as a Potential Strategy for the Prevention of Parkinson's Disease (April 3, 2014). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2421926 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2421926

Mojtaba Golpich

Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ( email )

Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia

HOME PAGE: http://www.ppukm.ukm.my/wbppukm/

Behrouz Rahmani

Neuroscience Research Center ( email )

Daneshjoo BLVD, Evin Square
Tehran, 1983963113
Iran

Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim (Contact Author)

National University of Malaysia (UKM) ( email )

Institute of Climate Change (IPI)
Selengor
Malaysia

Leila Dargahi

Shahid Beheshti University ( email )

Velenjak
Bostan
Tehran, Tehran 19839
Iran

Zahurin Mohamed

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine ( email )

Kuala Lumpur, 50603
Malaysia

Azman Ali Raymond

National University of Malaysia (UKM) ( email )

Institute of Climate Change (IPI)
Selengor
Malaysia

Abolhassan Ahmadiani

Neuroscience Research Center ( email )

Velenjak Street, Shahid Chamran High Way
Tehran
Iran

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