Women: Walking and Waiting for Water - The Time Value of Public Water Supply

Posted: 29 Apr 2014

See all articles by Elena Gross

Elena Gross

University of Bayreuth Chair Development Economics and BIGSAS

Isabel Günther

ETH Zürich - Department of Humanities, Social and Political Sciences (GESS)

Youdi Schipper

Twaweza

Date Written: April 29, 2014

Abstract

Public funding of water supply infrastructure in developing countries is often justified by the expectation that the time spent on water collection significantly decreases, leading to increased labor force participation of women. In this study we empirically test this hypothesis by applying a difference-in-difference analysis to a sample of 2000 households in rural Benin where improved water supply was phased in over time. Time savings per day are rather modest at 35 minutes: even though walking distances are considerably reduced, women still spend a lot of time waiting at the water source. Moreover, a reduction in time to collect one water container induces women to collect a higher number of containers per day. Our results indicate that time savings are rarely followed by increased labor supply of women: men are the first to be freed from water fetching activities. The upper-bound of the economic value of the annual time savings is 1-2 percent of households’ income.

Keywords: Water Supply, Behavioral Change, Time Savings, Labor Supply, Gender Bias

JEL Classification: I38, J22, J16

Suggested Citation

Gross, Elena and Günther, Isabel and Schipper, Youdi, Women: Walking and Waiting for Water - The Time Value of Public Water Supply (April 29, 2014). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2430576

Elena Gross (Contact Author)

University of Bayreuth Chair Development Economics and BIGSAS ( email )

Universitätsstraße 30
Bayreuth, 95447
Germany

Isabel Günther

ETH Zürich - Department of Humanities, Social and Political Sciences (GESS) ( email )

ETH-Zentrum SEW E 26
CH-8092 Zurich
Switzerland

Youdi Schipper

Twaweza ( email )

127 Mafinga Road
P.O. Box 38342
Dar es Salaam
Tanzania

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