Fast but Not Intuitive, Slow but Not Reflective: Decision Conflict Drives Reaction Times in Social Dilemmas
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Forthcoming
45 Pages Posted: 15 May 2014 Last revised: 20 Jan 2016
Date Written: August 5, 2015
When people have the chance to help others at a cost to themselves, are cooperative decisions driven by intuition or reflection? To answer this question, recent studies have tested the relationship between reaction times and cooperation, reporting both positive and negative correlations. To reconcile this apparent contradiction, we argue that decision conflict (rather than the use of intuition or reflection) drives response times, leading to an inverted-U shaped relationship between reaction time and cooperation. Studies 1-3 show that intermediate decisions take longer than both extremely selfish and extremely cooperative decisions. Studies 4 and 5 find that the conflict between self-interested and cooperative motives explains individual differences in reaction times. Manipulating conflictedness causes longer reaction times and more intermediate decisions, and reaction times mediate the relationship between conflict and intermediate decisions. Finally, Studies 6 and 7 demonstrate that conflict is distinct from reflection by manipulating the use of intuition (vs reflection). Experimentally promoting reliance on intuition increases cooperation, but has no effects on decision extremity or feelings of conflictedness. In sum, we provide evidence that reaction times should not be interpreted as a direct proxy for the use of intuitive or reflective processes, and dissociate the effects of conflict and reflection in social decision-making.
Keywords: cooperation, social dilemmas, reaction times, judgment and decision-making
JEL Classification: C7, C91
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation