동남아 주요 신흥국가와의 산업협력 강화전략 (Strategies to Strengthen Industrial Cooperation with Major Emerging Countries in Southeast Asia)

Posted: 15 May 2014

See all articles by Taeyoon Kim

Taeyoon Kim

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Jae Wan Cheong

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Jae-Ho Lee

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Mingeum Shin

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Na Ri Park

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Yoomi Kim

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Date Written: December 30, 2013

Abstract

Korean Abstract: 본 연구는 한국과 동남아 주요 신흥국가인 인도네시아, 필리핀, 베트남과의 산업협력을 더욱 강화하기 위한 전략을 마련하고자 시작되었다. 이를 위하여 주요 제조업을 중심으로 생산공정별 교역구조 분석, 한·중·일 기업의 생산네트워크 분석 등이 이루어졌다.

주요 제조업에서 양자간 교역관계를 크게 세 가지 생산공정별, 즉 원료, 중간재(반제품, 부품 및 부분품), 최종재(자본재, 소비재)로 구분하여 전반적으로 살펴보면 다음과 같다. 산업별로 한국과 협력하는 구조가 나라마다 조금씩 상이하지만 중간재 교역이 지속적으로 이루어진다는 점과 최종재에 대한 수출이 증가한다는 점에서 글로벌 생산네트워크 구조가 강화되는 것으로 이해할 수 있다. 섬유·봉제의 경우 반제품의 중간재와 최종소비재를 수입하고 반제품 형태의 중간재를 수출하는 구조이며, 최근 최종소비재의 수출도 증가하고 있다. 철강 및 금속의 경우 원료와 반제품 위주의 중간재를 수입하고 반제품 형태의 중간재를 수출하는 구조이다. 전자산업의 경우 부품 및 부분품 위주의 중간재와 자본재 위주의 최종재를 수출입하는 구조이다. 다만 광물성 연료 및 에너지 부문의 경우 원료를 수입하고 반제품 형태의 중간재를 수출하는 구조이다.

현지에 진출한 한·중·일 기업에 대한 생산네트워크를 분석한 결과 주요 특징으로 섬유·봉제업의 경우 한국기업은 원부자재를 주로 중국과 현지 및 한국으로부터 조달하여 미국과 일본 및 한국으로 수출하는 반면, 일본기업은 일본과 현지에서 원부자재를 조달하여 일본으로 수출하는 구조를 가지고 있다. 중국기업은 본국과 현지에서 원자재를 조달하여 미국, 중국, 현지에 판매하는 것으로 나타났다. 철강 및 금속 제품의 경우 중국기업이 인도네시아 현지에서 자체 판매망을 갖추고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 전자제품의 경우, 필리핀에 진출한 일본기업은 현지 판매망을 확보하고 내수시장에서 우위를 점하는 것으로 판단된다.

English Abstract: This research studies on industrial cooperation between Korea and Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam focusing on textiles/textile articles (Section 11), base metals/articles of base metal (Section 15), mineral products (Section 5), and electronic products (Chapter 85). It analyzes a trade structure between Korea/China/Japan and three Southeast Asian countries focusing on production process. Also, a survey is done to understand production networks of foreign manufacturing firms in the three Southeast Asian countries, originated from Korea, China and Japan.

Regarding the trade structure, global production networks have been strengthening because of the continuous increase of intermediate goods trade. Korea's exports of final goods in the manufacturing sector have also increased, which indicates Korea's competitiveness in the production of final goods compared to other firms.

More specifically, Korea imports both intermediate goods and final consumer goods in textiles/textile articles sector while exporting most of the intermediate goods. Primary goods and intermediate goods in base metals/articles of base metal sector are imported while intermediate goods are mainly exported. In electronic products, the trade is focused on that of parts & components and capital goods. We have a pattern of importing primary goods while exporting intermediates goods in the mineral products sector.

This study thus proposes the following measures for industrial cooperation, with respect to creating Korea's comprehensive strategy towards Southeast Asia.

First, Korean government should reinforce current inter-governmental consultative body to create business-friendly environments, and strengthen Korea's soft power by utilizing development cooperation. To this end, ODA tailored to each industrial sector should be expanded and contribute to enhancing the industrial competitiveness of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Strategies to reduce service link costs should be prepared to help Korean manufacturing firms build global production networks. AEO-MRAs (Authorized Economic Operator-Mutual Recognition Agreement) should be signed with emerging Southeast Asian countries.

Second, it is necessary to formulate strategies to strengthen the competitiveness of Korean enterprises in Southeast Asia by industrial sector. Given that Vietnam will join TPP, in the case of the textiles/textile articles companies, government should support companies to enter the local market from the initial stage of yarn production to satisfy the US's rules of origin for textiles (e.g. yarn forward). The ongoing initiative of "Korea-Indonesia industrial cooperation" should include technology cooperation in the area of textiles/textile articles as a representative example of industry-related ODA. In the case of base metals/articles of base metal and electronics, the Korean government should make an effort to improve the inadequate system of the local governments (e.g. standardization, reinforcement of safety standards, etc).

Third, to compete with the rivals such as China and Japan, systems that can obtain and exchange necessary information with the local governments should be reinforced. The biannual meetings held between Korea and Vietnam's Ministries of Finance, National Tax Services, and Customs Services should also be initiated with Indonesia and the Philippines, and provincial governments should also be involved.

Fourth, Korean government should develop successful cases of cooperation and fully utilize them when it comes to industrial cooperation with the three countries. Public-private partnership projects should be backed by strategies that combine Korean government's financing and private sector's technology. It is necessary to seek measures that encourage private companies to participate in industrial cluster projects.

Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.

Suggested Citation

Kim, Taeyoon and Cheong, Jae Wan and Lee, Jae-Ho and Shin, Mingeum and Park, Na Ri and Kim, Yoomi, 동남아 주요 신흥국가와의 산업협력 강화전략 (Strategies to Strengthen Industrial Cooperation with Major Emerging Countries in Southeast Asia) (December 30, 2013). KIEP Research Paper No. Policy Analysis-13-22. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2436804 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2436804

Taeyoon Kim (Contact Author)

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Jae Wan Cheong

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Jae-Ho Lee

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Mingeum Shin

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Na Ri Park

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Yoomi Kim

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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