Social Co-Operatives: When Social Enterprises Meet the Co-Operative Tradition

23 Pages Posted: 21 May 2014

See all articles by Jacques Defourny

Jacques Defourny

University of Liège

Marthe Nyssens

Catholic University of Louvain (UCL)

Date Written: May 20, 2014

Abstract

The emergence of social co-operatives cannot be understood without a more detailed analysis of the worldwide fast-growing interest toward social enterprise and social entrepreneurship since the mid-1990s. Much more than US-based schools of thought, a major European conception of social enterprise actually fits the co-operative tradition, and even more precisely, the "world standards of social cooperatives" as formulated by the Organization of Industrial, Artisanal and Service Producers’ Co-operatives (CICOPA). Placing social co-operatives in a longer historical perspective shows that new waves and/or new types of co-operatives generally emerge in times of deep transformations of the whole economic system when some basic conditions are met.

Keywords: Co-Operative; social enterprise; Europe; United States; governance; social innovation; earned income

JEL Classification: A13; D64; L21; L26; L31; P13

Suggested Citation

Defourny, Jacques and Nyssens, Marthe, Social Co-Operatives: When Social Enterprises Meet the Co-Operative Tradition (May 20, 2014). Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity, Vol. 2, No. 2 (2013), 11-33, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2437884

Jacques Defourny (Contact Author)

University of Liège ( email )

B-4000 Liege
Belgium

Marthe Nyssens

Catholic University of Louvain (UCL) ( email )

Place Montesquieu, 3
Louvain-la-Neuve, 1348
Belgium

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