Does Participation in 4-H Improve Schooling Outcomes? Evidence from Florida

43 Pages Posted: 14 Jun 2014

See all articles by Alfonso Flores-Lagunes

Alfonso Flores-Lagunes

Syracuse University--Economics; Syracuse University--CPR; IZA, Bonn

Troy Timko



We examine the effect of participation in 4-H, the largest youth development program in the United States, on standardized test scores. We do this by utilizing grade-level longitudinal data on Florida's school districts from the Florida Department of Education combined with 4-H participation statistics from Florida 4-H. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the extent of 4-H participation for third through tenth grade on the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). We use a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) approach to control for potential confounders of the causal relationship at the level of school districts, grades, and years. Our results indicate that the extent of 4-H participation at the district-grade-year level is positively and significantly related to several measures of performance on the FCAT test.

Keywords: 4-H program, Florida, standardized test scores

JEL Classification: I21, I28, H52

Suggested Citation

Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso and Timko, Troy, Does Participation in 4-H Improve Schooling Outcomes? Evidence from Florida. IZA Discussion Paper No. 8234, Available at SSRN: or

Alfonso Flores-Lagunes (Contact Author)

Syracuse University--Economics ( email )

Syracuse, NY 13244-1020
United States


Syracuse University--CPR ( email )

Syracuse, NY 13244
United States


IZA, Bonn ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072


Troy Timko

Independent ( email )

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