Why Elections Fail: The Role of International Forces

27 Pages Posted: 12 Aug 2014

See all articles by Pippa Norris

Pippa Norris

Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS); University of Sydney

Date Written: 2014


This paper seeks to determine whether, and under what circumstances, international forces strengthen electoral integrity, especially the role of cosmopolitan communications and globalization, the provisions of technical assistance and development aid, and the role of international observers.

Explanations based upon international forces emphasize the role of external actors ‘exporting’ electoral integrity, especially in poor societies, in deeply-divided states, and in countries with little, if any, experience of democratic practices.

Part I of this paper expands upon the theoretical framework. Part II outlines the evidence. Part III presents a case study. The conclusion summarizes the key findings and considers their consequences

Keywords: elections, international development, electoral integrity, development aid, comparative politics

Suggested Citation

Norris, Pippa, Why Elections Fail: The Role of International Forces (2014). APSA 2014 Annual Meeting Paper. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2453958

Pippa Norris (Contact Author)

Harvard University - Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) ( email )

79 John F. Kennedy Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States
617-495-1475 (Phone)
617-496-2850 (Fax)

University of Sydney ( email )

University of Sydney
Sydney, NC NSW 2006

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