Le rôle de la Chine et de l’OMC dans le développement des Considérations Autres que Commerciales pour régler le commerce mondial de façon plus juste et durable (The Role of China and of the WTO for the Development of the Non-Trade Concerns to Regulate the World Trade in a More Just and Durable Way)

in Laurence Potvin-Solis, Market Economy, Rights and Freedoms, and Common Values in Europe and Asia, Publications of the Jean Monnet Chair of the University of Lorraine, Metz, France (2012)

37 Pages Posted: 9 Jul 2014 Last revised: 10 Jul 2014

Paolo Davide Farah

West Virginia University (WV, USA); gLAWcal - Global Law Initiatives for Sustainable Development (United Kingdom); University Institute of European Studies - IUSE (Turin, Italy)

Date Written: June 1, 2012

Abstract

French Abstract: De Seattle en 1999 à Occupy Wall Street en 2011, la société civile n’a cessé de manifester son désarroi et sa colère face aux conséquences humaines, sociales et environnementales de l’extension planétaire du commerce mondial et de la traduction en termes quantitatifs, monétaires et marchands de l’ensemble des transactions interpersonnelles. Pour autant, depuis le début de la révolution industrielle le succès du mode capitaliste de production semble attesté par ses résultats tangibles en termes de développement démographique, technologique et économique. Entre 1810 et 2010, le revenu global par personne a été multiplié par neuf, la population mondiale a été multipliée par six et le rythme des innovations technologiques a cru de façon exponentielle (train, avion, internet, etc.).

Cependant deux bémols importants doivent être apportés quant à l’efficacité et la légitimité du mode industriel de production de biens et du mode marchand de distribution des richesses en leur extension mondiale. Le premier bémol est que le développement mondial du mode industriel de production des biens a eu pour effet de bouleverser l’équilibre écosystémique qui régule l’interaction entre l’homme et son environnement: changement climatique, épuisement des ressources halieutiques, érosion des sols et pollution atmosphérique forment l’envers de la médaille du triomphe mondial de la révolution industrielle. Dire que le mode actuel de développement est non-soutenable selon signifie que sa continuation entraînera en même temps son extinction: le développement humain a pour limite exogène finie la capacité de production, d’absorption et de recyclage de la Terre. Le second bémol est que le développement mondial du mode marchand de distribution des richesses a créé un paradoxal renforcement des inégalités. Dès lors, l’idée de limiter les excès de la globalisation en même temps que de contrôler les institutions internationales qui les mettent en place comme le FMI ou l’OMC peut se justifier à certains égards.

English Abstract: The delocalization of production appears to be the sole response to the increasing competitive pressure exerted by low-cost producers on European firms. While this delocalization has resulted in loss of employment for European citizens within the EU, it may have a corrosive impact on the core societal values both in EU and in the host country. Both public opinion and policy makers fear that international trade, in particular a further liberalization thereof, may undermine or jeopardize policies and measures on a wide variety of issues, for example, the protection the environment and the sustainable development, good governance, cultural rights, labor rights, public health, social welfare, national security, food safety, access to knowledge, consumer interests and animal welfare. There is a general consensus that these non-trade concerns, which cover very different societal aspirations and fears, must be addressed in EU external policy and in particular measures relating to international trade and foreign direct investment. There is also the expectation that the EU should act in all the international arenas to defend and keep these values at the highest level of protection. However, many of the trade measures introduced by developed countries to address non-trade concerns have been met by developing countries with cautious distrust if not with resistance or dissent. Developing countries, including China, often doubt the authenticity of such concerns that can be inspired by protectionist aims, rather than genuine non-trade concerns. Moreover, developing countries see these measures as an attempt by developed countries to impose their social, ethical or cultural values and preferences on exporting developing countries.

Given the different and sometimes opposing interests of developing and industrialized countries, one may question whether international economic law may become a fairer system. If all the countries negotiated in international fora having always in mind the general common interests of the humanity as a whole, this would be the case. Unfortunately this is not the case: this is the reason why this project is timely and necessary. Amongst the new emerging economies, China is already playing a key role in drawing new rules of the game and it is important to evaluate, without prejudice and by taking into consideration its special context, China’s behavior internally and externally to understand which direction the world is being driven in by China.

Notes: Downloadable document is in French.

Keywords: Chinese Law, Non-Trade Concerns, Sustainable Development, Protection of Environment, Energy, Public Health, Food Safety, Social and Economic Rights, Labour Rights, International Law, WTO Law

JEL Classification: A13, D46, D63, K33, K32, K31, O34, Q32, K30

Suggested Citation

Farah, Paolo Davide, Le rôle de la Chine et de l’OMC dans le développement des Considérations Autres que Commerciales pour régler le commerce mondial de façon plus juste et durable (The Role of China and of the WTO for the Development of the Non-Trade Concerns to Regulate the World Trade in a More Just and Durable Way) (June 1, 2012). in Laurence Potvin-Solis, Market Economy, Rights and Freedoms, and Common Values in Europe and Asia, Publications of the Jean Monnet Chair of the University of Lorraine, Metz, France (2012). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2462945

Paolo Davide Farah (Contact Author)

West Virginia University (WV, USA) ( email )

209 Knapp Hall, PO Box 6322
Morgantown, WV 26506-6322
United States

HOME PAGE: http://paolofarah.wordpress.com

gLAWcal - Global Law Initiatives for Sustainable Development (United Kingdom) ( email )

United Kingdom

HOME PAGE: http://www.glawcal.org.uk/

University Institute of European Studies - IUSE (Turin, Italy) ( email )

Turin
Italy

HOME PAGE: http://paolofarah.wordpress.com

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