Estimating Loan-to-Value Distributions

Real Estate Economics, Forthcoming

Posted: 22 Jul 2014

See all articles by Arthur G. Korteweg

Arthur G. Korteweg

University of Southern California - Marshall School of Business

Morten Sorensen

Copenhagen Business School; Columbia Business School; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

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Date Written: July 6, 2014


We estimate a model of house prices, combined loan-to-value ratios (CLTVs), and trade and foreclosure behavior. House prices are only observed for traded properties and trades are endogenous, creating sample-selection problems for existing approaches to estimating CLTVs. We use a Bayesian filtering procedure to recover the price path for individual properties and produce selection-corrected estimates of historical CLTV distributions. Estimating our model with transactions of residential properties in Alameda, CA, we find that 35% of single-family homes are underwater, compared to the 19% estimated by existing approaches. Further, our results reduce the index revision problem and have applications for pricing mortgage-backed securities.

Keywords: Loan-to-Value, Price Dispersion, Real Estate Indices, Sample Selection, Bayesian Estimation

Suggested Citation

Korteweg, Arthur G. and Sørensen, Morten, Estimating Loan-to-Value Distributions (July 6, 2014). Real Estate Economics, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN:

Arthur G. Korteweg

University of Southern California - Marshall School of Business ( email )

3670 Trousdale Parkway
Los Angeles, CA 90089
United States


Morten Sørensen (Contact Author)

Copenhagen Business School ( email )

Solbjerg Plads 3
Frederiksberg C, DK - 2000

Columbia Business School ( email )

3022 Broadway
New York, NY 10027
United States

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) ( email )

United Kingdom

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