Women Helping Women? Evidence from Private Sector Data on Workplace Hierarchies

60 Pages Posted: 29 Jul 2014 Last revised: 11 Jun 2015

Astrid Kunze

Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) - Department of Economics; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA); CESIfo

Amalia R. Miller

University of Virginia - Department of Economics

Multiple version iconThere are 4 versions of this paper

Date Written: June 10, 2015

Abstract

This paper studies gender spillovers in career advancement using 11 years of employer-employee matched data on the population of white-collar workers at over 4,000 private-sector establishments in Norway. Our data include unusually detailed job information for each worker, which enables us to define seven hierarchical ranks that are consistent across establishments and over time in order to measure promotions (defined as year-to-year rank increases) even for individuals who change employers. We first find that women have significantly lower promotion rates than men across all ranks of the corporate hierarchy, even after controlling for a range of individual characteristics (age, education, tenure, experience) and including fixed effects for current rank, year, industry, and even work establishment. In measuring the effects of female coworkers, we find positive gender spillovers across ranks (flowing from higher-ranking to lower-ranking women) but negative spillovers within ranks. The finding that greater female representation at higher ranks narrows the gender gap in promotion rates at lower ranks suggests that policies that increase female representation in corporate leadership can have spillover benefits to women in lowers ranks.

Keywords: Gender differences in promotions, Women in leadership, Workplace gender spillovers

JEL Classification: J6, J7, M5

Suggested Citation

Kunze, Astrid and Miller, Amalia R., Women Helping Women? Evidence from Private Sector Data on Workplace Hierarchies (June 10, 2015). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2472720 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2472720

Astrid Kunze

Norwegian School of Economics (NHH) - Department of Economics ( email )

Helleveien 30
N-5035 Bergen, NO-5045
Norway
+ 47 55 95 97 54 (Phone)
+ 47 55 95 95 43 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.nhh.no/sam/cv/kunze-astrid.html

Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) ( email )

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany
+49 228 38 94 221 (Phone)
+49 228 38 94 180 (Fax)

CESIfo ( email )

Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany

Amalia R. Miller (Contact Author)

University of Virginia - Department of Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 400182
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4182
United States

HOME PAGE: http://people.virginia.edu/~am5by/

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