寻找企业发展和公共服务之间的黄金平衡点：中国媒介行业的文化体系改革 (Between Corporate Development and Public Service: The Cultural System Reform in the Chinese Media Sector)
上海传媒发展报告2014 （主编／强荧 焦雨虹）。该文的英文原文“Between Corporate Development and Public Service: The Cultural System Reform in the Chinese Media Sector” 发表在 Media, Culture & Society, Volume 36 (2014), Issue 5, pp. 610-627.
9 Pages Posted: 30 Jul 2014
Date Written: July 29, 2014
Chinese Abstract: 如果说20世纪80年代和90年代的文化体制改革还处于缓慢、边缘的阶段，那么在21世纪就成为中国坚持不懈改革的核心部分，特别是2008年以后取得了显著且突飞猛进的成果。为了建立起文化市场经济，文化体制改革将大部分文化机构转变为由国家所有以及国家控制的股份制公司，同时通过对一些非营利领域进行国家财政扶持以加强公共服务职能。通过对文化体制改革历史脉络的梳理和背景陈述，本文不仅仅阐述文化市场发展的一些主线同时讨论政府为什么以及如何重组公共部门和企业部门并找到两者之间所谓的黄金平衡点的，特别是媒体行业的两个领头羊即电影和广播电视。针对政府在市场化进程中的作为，中国的传播学学者已经对国家干预和市场作用之间的交叉部分是如何创造中国主体文化进程进行了论述。本文通过已有政策和机构变迁特别是“去商业化”运动所变现出来的公共职能的回归，提出新的理解。
English Abstract: If the cultural system reform in the 1980s and 1990s had been peripheral and sluggish, it has become a central part of China’s unswerving reform in the 21st century and noticeably gained velocity after 2008. Aiming to build up a cultural market economy, the reform is transforming the majority of cultural institutions into state-owned and even state-controlled shareholding corporations, while strengthening the public service obligation of state financing in a few non-profitable areas. By chronicling and contextualizing reform efforts, this paper not only documents some major lines of market development but also examines why and how the state is realigning its public and corporate sectors in such a particular mode of synthesis, especially in two leading media sectors, i.e., film and TV broadcasting. While Chinese communication scholars have documented how the overlap between the state and market forces creates dominant cultural processes in China, focusing on the state’s straightforward efforts of commercialization, this paper offers an updated understanding of verifiable policy and institutional changes — especially the "decommercialization" movement embodied by the return of public units.
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