개방경제하에서의 소득분위별 후생수준 변화 (Income Distribution and Welfare Effects of Trade Liberalzation)

153 Pages Posted: 7 Aug 2014

See all articles by Chul Chung

Chul Chung

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Bonggeun Kim

Seoul National University

Young Jun Chun

Hanyang University

Joun Won Lee

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Date Written: December 30, 2013

Abstract

Korean Abstract: 관세 및 무역에 관한 일반협정(GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)에서 세계무역기구(WTO: World Trade Organization)로 이어지는 다자간 무역자유화협상의 진전, 자유무역협정(FTA: Free Trade Agreement)의 확산 등을 통해 세계는 지난 수십 년간 경제성장과 함께 글로벌화의 진전을 이루어왔다. 한편 개방화의 진전과 경제성장에 따라 우리나라 모든 계층의 생활수준이 개선되었음에도 불구하고, 이러한 성장의 과실이 상위계층에 편중되는 현상으로 소득불평등도의 악화에 대한 우려가 제기되고 있다. 이러한 소득불평등의 악화는 비단 우리나라만의 문제가 아니라, 미국ㆍ유럽 등의 선진국과 신흥개도국 등 세계 주요국에서 나타나는 공통적인 현상으로, 사회적 갈등 완화와 계층간 균형발전이 매우 중요한 정책과제로 부상하고 있다.

이에 본 보고서는 개방이 소득계층별 실질소득과 소득불평등도에 어떠한 영향을 미쳤는지에 대한 문헌조사와 실증분석, 정책 시뮬레이션 분석을 통해 실제 개방에 따른 소득증대 및 분배와 소득계층별 후생수준에 미치는 효과에 대한 시사점을 제공하는 것을 연구의 주요 목적으로 삼았다. 이러한 연구를 통해 향후 개방에 따른 소득불평등도 개선을 위한 정책 수립에 본 보고서가 기초자료로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

본 보고서의 연구방법론을 간략히 요약하면, 먼저 지난 20년간 우리나라가 개방과 무역자유화를 확대하는 동안의 소득불평등도 추세를 살펴보기 위해 소비자물가지수와 수입물가지수를 소득분위별로 새롭게 구축하고, 이를 이용하여 소득분위별 실질소득을 측정한 후, 이를 반영한 소득분위별 실질소득불평등도의 추세를 분석하였다. 또한 Hamilton(2001, 2005)의 분석방법론을 활용하여 엥겔곡선의 이동이 소득계층별로 차이가 난다는 점도 연구에 포함하였다. 한편 개방이 소득계층별 후생변화에 미치는 영향을 평가하기 위해 일반균형모형을 이용하여 시뮬레이션 분석을 수행하였다.

English Abstract: Over the last few decades, the world has achieved notable progress regarding globalization, followed by economic growth through the proliferation of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), and multilateral trade liberalization under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and World Trade Organization (WTO). Despite the improvement of the overall standards of living thanks to trade liberalization and rapid economic growth in South Korea, however, critics argue that the income inequality has worsened as a result of globalization. According to them, fruits of globalization and economic growth are biased toward certain classes and mainly the upper class. As issues of worsening income inequality and wider economic disparity between classes are not only limited in South Korea, but is rather considered global phenomena which can be easily observed all around the world, including in the developed countries such as the United States and Europe, as well as in the developing countries. Therefore, establishing policies for alleviating social conflict, and the search for development balancing the classes has long remained a necessity that transcends national borders.

This study, therefore, mainly aims at not only giving profound analysis of the correlation between openness and income distribution facilitated by liberalization, but also examining the effects of how liberalization actually affects levels of welfare depending on the income class. This is achieved through statistical and econometric analysis and policy simulation via careful scrutiny of actual impacts of liberalization on the real income of each class and income inequality. Also, we expect this study to be used as a foundation for establishing necessary policies aiming at remedying the income inequality in Korea.

To give a summary of the research methodology used in this study, we first calculate the consumer price index (CPI) and import price index (IPI) associated with each income class. Then we recalculate the real income of each class using those calculated price index measures to examine the trend of the income inequality for the last two decades. We also employ Hamilton (2001 and 2005)’s methodology to measure price indices since the movement of the Engel curve may vary with income class. Lastly, we conduct a simulation analysis by applying the general equilibrium model to evaluate how the liberalization affects the welfare of each income class.

Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.

Suggested Citation

Chung, Chul and Kim, Bonggeun and Chun, Young Jun and Lee, Joun Won, 개방경제하에서의 소득분위별 후생수준 변화 (Income Distribution and Welfare Effects of Trade Liberalzation) (December 30, 2013). KIEP Research Paper No. Policy Analysis-13-03. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2477296 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2477296

Chul Chung (Contact Author)

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Bonggeun Kim

Seoul National University ( email )

Kwanak-gu
Seoul, 151-742
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Young Jun Chun

Hanyang University ( email )

Seoul
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Joun Won Lee

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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