Income and Education of the States of the United States: 1840-2000

66 Pages Posted: 23 Feb 2015

See all articles by Scott L. Baier

Scott L. Baier

Clemson University - John E. Walker Department of Economics

Sean E. Mulholland

Western Carolina University

Chad Turner

Nicholls State University

Robert Tamura

Clemson University - John E. Walker Department of Economics; Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

Date Written: November 2004

Abstract

This article introduces original annual average years of schooling measures for each state from 1840 to 2000. The paper also combines original data on real state per-worker output with existing data to provide a more comprehensive series of real state output per worker from 1840 to 2000. These data show that the New England, Middle Atlantic, Pacific, East North Central, and West North Central regions have been educational leaders during the entire time period. In contrast, the South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South Central regions have been educational laggards. The Mountain region behaves differently than either of the aforementioned groups. Using their estimates of average years of schooling and average years of experience in the labor force, the authors estimate aggregate Mincerian earnings regressions. Their estimates indicate that a year of schooling increased output by between 8 percent and 12 percent, with a point estimate close to 10 percent. These estimates are in line with the body of evidence from the labor literature.

Keywords: state human capital, state output per worker, returns to schooling

JEL Classification: O40, J24, E01, N00

Suggested Citation

Baier, Scott Leonard and Mulholland, Sean E. and Turner, Chad and Tamura, Robert, Income and Education of the States of the United States: 1840-2000 (November 2004). FRB Atlanta Working Paper No. 2004-31. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2482434 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2482434

Scott Leonard Baier

Clemson University - John E. Walker Department of Economics ( email )

Clemson, SC 29634
United States
864-656-4534 (Phone)

Sean E. Mulholland

Western Carolina University ( email )

United States

HOME PAGE: http://faculty.wcu.edu/semulholland/

Chad Turner

Nicholls State University ( email )

Thibodaux, LA 70310
United States
985-448-4194 (Phone)
985-448-4922 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.nicholls.edu/cturner

Robert Tamura (Contact Author)

Clemson University - John E. Walker Department of Economics ( email )

Clemson, SC 29634
United States
864-656-1242 (Phone)
864-656-4192 (Fax)

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta

1000 Peachtree Street N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30309-4470
United States

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