Gender Differences in Negotiation: Implications for the Workplace

36 Pages Posted: 24 Sep 2014

See all articles by Julia Johnson

Julia Johnson

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Date Written: April 18, 2014


Despite significant incentives pushing for women’s equality in the workforce, women continue to lag behind men in terms of pay and leadership positions. Even more disconcertingly, women, on average, have equal or better educational credentials and offer comparable skill sets to employers. There are a variety of causal factors that have been postulated for this disparity, including women’s childcare obligations, proclivity for public interest and low-paid employment, and heightened concern for work-life balance. However, one additional latent cause exists. Often, women are not as effective self-advocates as men; though women may not believe it is socially acceptable for them to ardently self-promote, women’s reticence to effectively negotiate results in women receiving significantly less pay for the same work.

This article will explore the factors affecting women’s willingness to negotiate and the differences between male and female negotiation styles. Subsequently, this article will propose several recommendations for closing the gender gap in negotiation and in the workplace.

Keywords: Women, Gender Differences, Negotiation

JEL Classification: M51, M52

Suggested Citation

Johnson, Julia, Gender Differences in Negotiation: Implications for the Workplace (April 18, 2014). Available at SSRN: or

Julia Johnson (Contact Author)

affiliation not provided to SSRN

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