Taxation of R&D: Review of Practices

33 Pages Posted: 23 Sep 2014

See all articles by Galina Kitova

Galina Kitova

National Research University Higher School of Economics

Date Written: September 22, 2014


In recent years R&D tax incentives have been characterized by increasing scale and spread on innovation activity. Approaches to integrated R&D tax incentives into "recipes" for long-term growth and competitiveness were developed and tested in many countries. For example, only 12 OECD members employed R&D tax incentives in 1995, but 27 members do so in 2013 (as well as Brazil, China, India, Russia and other countries). And their share of total government expenditure on R&D (direct and tax) by OECD member countries reached at least a third. These trends have accompanied the development and testing of approaches to estimate the costs of tax support for R&D (including tax expenditures) and its effects and to ensure that they are internationally compatible.

As for Russia, there are no officially accepted estimates of the scale and effectiveness of R&D and innovation tax support yet, though efforts to calculate them have been under way since 2010. This paper includes the current state of empirical research of tax support for R&D and innovation in the Russian Federation, as well as a survey of the demand for its tools from research institutes, universities performing R&D, and manufacturing enterprises, which was conducted in 2012-2013. The results obtained demonstrate the power of empirical analysis and optimization of R&D and innovation tax incentives in the Russian Federation, against the background of the field's best practices and current trends.

Keywords: R&D, innovation, tax incentives, tax expenditures, demand for R&D and innovation tax incentives.

JEL Classification: H21, H22, H25

Suggested Citation

Kitova, Galina, Taxation of R&D: Review of Practices (September 22, 2014). Higher School of Economics Research Paper No. WP BRP 28/STI/2014, Available at SSRN: or

Galina Kitova (Contact Author)

National Research University Higher School of Economics ( email )

Myasnitskaya street, 20
Moscow, Moscow 119017

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