Pre-Employment VET Investment Strategy in Developing Countries: Based on the Experiences of Korea

47 Pages Posted: 29 Dec 2014

See all articles by Sung Joon Paik

Sung Joon Paik

KDI School of Public Policy and Management

Date Written: December 2014


This study was attempted to identify key factors that are worth to be considered when the government of a developing country designs and implements the pre-employment VET policies and systems. For this, 7 policy cases of Korea were selected and analyzed according to 4 key policy issues that developing countries face. Key factors identified are (1) different modes of delivery (school, vocational training institute, employer); (2) relative efficacy of vocational education to general education; (3) relative effectiveness of public provision to private provision; and (4) funding rationale (who should pay for VET). Analysis identified 10 common key factors: (1) changes in employment opportunities and skill demands, (2) society’s perception on VET and preference of academic programs, (3) capacity and readiness of existing VET providers, (4) cognitive skills of students and trainees, (5) government’s policies to induce private sector to the pre-employment VET and to form training market, (6) government’s financial capacity and funding rationale, (7) private sector’s capacity and willingness to finance and provide VET, (8) supporting mechanisms (qualification system, quality assurance, and information system), (9) political leadership (initiation and sustainability of policies), and (10) cooperation & coordination mechanisms among stakeholders (ministries of central government, local governments, industry, providers, etc.). For effective investment, this study suggests long-term, comprehensive and demand-driven approach.

Keywords: pre-employment VET, vocational education, vocational training, investment strategy, developing countries, funding, skills

Suggested Citation

Paik, Sung Joon, Pre-Employment VET Investment Strategy in Developing Countries: Based on the Experiences of Korea (December 2014). KDI School of Pub Policy & Management Paper No. 14-06, Available at SSRN: or

Sung Joon Paik (Contact Author)

KDI School of Public Policy and Management ( email )

P.O. Box 184
Seoul, 130-868
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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