Public Opinion on Automated Driving: Results of an International Questionnaire Among 5,000 Respondents

Kyriakidis, M., Happee, R., & De Winter, J. C. F. (2015). Public opinion on automated driving: Results of an international questionnaire among 5,000 respondents. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 32, 127–140.

26 Pages Posted: 8 Oct 2014 Last revised: 18 Jul 2015

Miltos Kyriakidis

Delft University of Technology

Riender Happee

Delft University of Technology

Joost de Winter

Delft University of Technology

Date Written: October 7, 2014

Abstract

This study investigated user acceptance, worries, and willingness to buy partially, highly, and fully automated vehicles. By means of a 63-question Internet-based survey, we collected 5,000 responses from 109 countries (40 countries with at least 25 respondents). We determined cross-national differences, and assessed correlations with personal variables, such as age, gender, and personality traits as measured with a short version of the Big Five Inventory. Results showed that respondents, on average, found manual driving the most enjoyable mode of driving. Responses were diverse: 22% of the respondents did not want to pay more than $0 for a fully automated driving system, whereas 5% indicated they would be willing to pay more than $30,000 for it, and 33% indicated that fully automated driving would be highly enjoyable. 69% of respondents estimated that fully automated driving will reach a 50% market share between now and 2050. Respondents were found to be most concerned about software hacking/misuse, and were also concerned about legal issues and safety. More neurotic people were slightly less comfortable about data transmitting, whereas agreeable persons were slightly more comfortable with that. The more developed countries (in terms of accident statistics, education, and income) were less comfortable with their vehicle transmitting data, with cross-national correlations between ρ= -0.80 and ρ= -0.90. The present results indicate the major areas of promise and concern among the international public, and could be useful for vehicle developers and other stakeholders.

Keywords: Driverless car, Questionnaire, Personality traits, Cross-national differences, Intent to purchase

Suggested Citation

Kyriakidis, Miltos and Happee, Riender and de Winter, Joost, Public Opinion on Automated Driving: Results of an International Questionnaire Among 5,000 Respondents (October 7, 2014). Kyriakidis, M., Happee, R., & De Winter, J. C. F. (2015). Public opinion on automated driving: Results of an international questionnaire among 5,000 respondents. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 32, 127–140.. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2506579 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2506579

Miltos Kyriakidis

Delft University of Technology ( email )

Mekelweg 2
Mekelweg 2
Delft, 2628 CN
Netherlands

Riender Happee

Delft University of Technology ( email )

Stevinweg 1
Stevinweg 1
Delft, 2628 CN
Netherlands

Joost De Winter (Contact Author)

Delft University of Technology ( email )

Mekelweg 2
Delft, 2628 CD
Netherlands

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