Early Retirement Across Europe. Does Non-Standard Employment Increase Participation of Older Workers?
40 Pages Posted: 16 Oct 2014
Date Written: October 15, 2014
In many European countries, the labor market participation of older workers is considerably lower than the labor market participation of prime-age workers. This study analyzes the variation in labor market withdrawal of older workers across 13 European countries over the period 1995-2008. We seek to contribute to existing macro-econometric studies by taking non-standard employment into account, by relating the empirical model more explicitly to optional value model theory on retirement decisions and by using a two-step IV-GMM estimator to deal with endogeneity issues. The analysis leads to the conclusion that part-time employment is negatively related to labor market withdrawal of older men. This relationship is less strong among women. Additionally, we find that part-time employment at older ages does not decrease the average actual hours worked. Furthermore, the results show a positive relationship between unemployment among older workers and early retirement similar to previous studies.
Keywords: early retirement, part-time employment, self-employment, social insurance programs, labor market institutions
JEL Classification: C33, C36, J14, J26
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