Awarding Damages or Demanding Performance? A Performance-Oriented Approach for International Investment Law
14 Pages Posted: 25 Oct 2014 Last revised: 25 Apr 2017
Date Written: October 24, 2014
This paper examines two different approaches to judicial protection of entitlements in international economic law. One of them, ‘performance-oriented’, is applied by WTO adjudicators. Performance-oriented remedies focus on inducing wrongdoers to resume compliance with the underlying substantive rules. The other, ‘reparation-oriented’, is applied overwhelmingly in international investment law. Reparation-oriented remedies aim at offsetting the injury caused to private parties by the wrongful conduct. This paper discusses the utility of performance-oriented remedies within WTO law, and assesses the possibilities for otherwise reparation-oriented investment tribunals to have recourse to these remedies. It examines a number of decisions that, it is argued, favor performance over pecuniary compensation. From the viewpoint of the state found in breach, compensation then appears as a threatened sanction for non-compliance with the performance obligations determined.
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation