Job Creation in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations

61 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2016

Date Written: October 1, 2014


This paper presents a comprehensive review of the operations that the World Bank has supported to create jobs and promote employment in fragile and conflict-affected situations. A novel approach to identifying projects is presented that enables searching for projects based on stated development objectives, regardless of the sector of the project. Of a sample of 2,166 projects funded by the International Development Association, this resulted in the identification of 98 projects that have specific job creation and employment generation development objectives. Among these projects, 51 percent of countries appearing on the list between 2004 and 2012 have implemented projects. Detailed textual analysis is carried out on the project descriptions and indicators to evaluate how well projects are aligned to the context. The results suggest there is a lack of measurement on outcomes that are particularly relevant for fragile and conflict-affected situations, such as the development of social cohesion, reintegration of those involved or affected by violence, impacts jobs have on the willingness to engage in violence or conflict, perceptions of government accountability, and equitable access to these economic opportunities. Quantitative analysis of the portfolio indicates that there are also systematic differences in the size and resources associated with job creation projects in countries with fragile and conflict-affected situations relative to similar projects in other International Development Association-borrowing countries. Given the mixed empirical evidence on the relationship between jobs and conflict, this report calls for more methodological measurement of the impacts of these programs on stabilization outcomes in the future.

Keywords: Education For All, Educational Populations, Education for Development (superceded), Social Protections & Assistance, Conflict and Fragile States

Suggested Citation

Ralston, Laura, Job Creation in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations (October 1, 2014). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 7078, Available at SSRN:

Laura Ralston (Contact Author)

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

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