Determinants of Migration from ASEAN‐3 into Malaysia

11 Pages Posted: 12 Nov 2014

See all articles by Idris Jajri

Idris Jajri

University of Malaya

Rahmah Ismail

University of Kebangsaan

Date Written: November 2014


Migration theory advances several reasons for migration, which can be categorised into two groups: push factors and pull factors. Push factors include the economic performance of the emigrating country, whereas the pull factors include performance in the destination country. The latter include gross domestic product, job creation, the unemployment rate, education level, and wage rate. This paper examines the determinants of immigration from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)‐3, namely Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, into Malaysia. The analysis is based on panel data of 1990–2008 using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. The results show that the main determinants of this migration flow are the real wage ratio among the ASEAN‐3 and Malaysia, the unemployment rate in the source countries, and the real exchange rate ratio between the ASEAN‐3 and Malaysia.

Suggested Citation

Jajri, Idris and Ismail, Rahmah, Determinants of Migration from ASEAN‐3 into Malaysia (November 2014). Asian‐Pacific Economic Literature, Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 52-62, 2014, Available at SSRN: or

Idris Jajri (Contact Author)

University of Malaya ( email )

Jalan Lembah Pantai
Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan 50603

Rahmah Ismail

University of Kebangsaan ( email )

Bangi, Selangor 43600

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