'Free' Basic Education for All? Understanding Household Education Spending Patterns and Trends
World Bank Knowledge Brief (April 2013). Washington, DC: World Bank
6 Pages Posted: 16 Nov 2014
Date Written: April 1, 2013
Indonesia has made significant progress in increasing access to education over the last decade. Despite these impressive trends, many children do not continue their education beyond the primary and junior secondary level. While a number of factors influence a household's schooling decision, the direct and indirect costs of education are important particularly for the poorest households. The cost of education is also likely to partly explain the higher drop-out rates seen in Indonesia amongst poorer children. A number of reforms have been introduced by the Government of Indonesia to reduce the financial burden of school enrolment. These programs have been supported by recent legislation outlining the fees and contributions the schools are allowed to charge. This brief examines household education spending patterns and trends between 2003 and 2009. It aims to provide a clear picture of education spending on primary and secondary schooling to assess the extent to which this constrains participate. It looks at how spending has changed in light of the reforms designed to reduce the burden on households of sending and keeping their children in school. The brief also provides important analysis that can help to inform existing regulations on free basic education.
Keywords: Household education spending, basic education, junior secondary education, equity, access to education, barriers to education, Indonesia
JEL Classification: I20, I22, O10, O15
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation