Creativity from Constraint? How Political Correctness Influences Creativity in Mixed-Sex Work Groups

Administrative Science Quarterly, 60 (1): 1-30.

Vanderbilt Owen Graduate School of Management Research Paper No. 2535983

47 Pages Posted: 10 Dec 2014 Last revised: 16 Mar 2015

Jack A. Goncalo

Cornell University - School of Industrial and Labor Relations

Jennifer Chatman

University of California, Berkeley - Haas School of Business, Organizational Behavior & Industrial Relations Group

Michelle Duguid

Washington University in St. Louis

Jessica Kennedy

Vanderbilt University - Organizational Behavior

Date Written: August 18, 2014

Abstract

Most group creativity research is premised on the assumption that creativity is unleashed by removing normative constraints. As work organizations become increasingly diverse in terms of gender, however, this assumption needs to be reconsidered since mixed-sex interactions carry a high risk of offense. Departing from the assumption that normative constraints necessarily stifle creativity, we develop a theoretical perspective in which creativity in mixed-sex groups is enhanced by imposing a norm to be politically correct (PC) — a norm that sets clear expectations for how men and women should interact with one another. We present evidence from two group experiments showing that the PC norm promotes rather than suppresses members’ free expression of ideas by reducing the uncertainty they experience in mixed-sex work groups. These results highlight a paradoxical consequence of the PC norm: A term that has been used to undermine expectations to censor offensive language as a threat to free speech actually provides a normative foundation upon which demographically heterogeneous work groups can freely exchange creative ideas. We discuss the implications of our findings for managing creativity in diverse groups and under conditions of uncertainty, and the counterintuitive role that normative constraints play in that process.

Keywords: Creativity, creativity in work groups, uncertainty, group gender composition, political correctness norm

Suggested Citation

Goncalo, Jack A. and Chatman, Jennifer and Duguid, Michelle and Kennedy, Jessica, Creativity from Constraint? How Political Correctness Influences Creativity in Mixed-Sex Work Groups (August 18, 2014). Administrative Science Quarterly, 60 (1): 1-30.; Vanderbilt Owen Graduate School of Management Research Paper No. 2535983. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2535983

Jack A. Goncalo (Contact Author)

Cornell University - School of Industrial and Labor Relations ( email )

Ithaca, NY 14853-3901
United States

Jennifer Chatman

University of California, Berkeley - Haas School of Business, Organizational Behavior & Industrial Relations Group ( email )

Berkeley, CA 94720
United States
510-642-4723 (Phone)

Michelle Duguid

Washington University in St. Louis ( email )

One Brookings Drive
Campus Box 1208
Saint Louis, MO MO 63130-4899
United States

Jessica Kennedy

Vanderbilt University - Organizational Behavior ( email )

Nashville, TN 37203
United States

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