Symmetric and asymmetric motivations for compliance and violation: A crisp set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA) of Chinese farmers

Regulation & Governance, 2015, Forthcoming

UC Irvine School of Law Research Paper No. 2015-02

35 Pages Posted: 18 Dec 2014 Last revised: 18 Jun 2015

See all articles by Huiqi Yan

Huiqi Yan

School of Public Administration, Central South University

Jeroen van der Heijden

Victoria University of Wellington, School of Government; School of Regulation & Global Governance (RegNet)

Benjamin van Rooij

University of California, Irvine School of Law; University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Law

Date Written: December 16, 2014

Abstract

This article applies crisp set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA) to gain insight in the compliance motivations and compliance behaviours of 101 Chinese farmers. It seeks to understand how eight motivations (capacity to comply, legal knowledge, deterrent effect of sanctions, cost-benefit analysis, descriptive social norms, morals, general duty to obey, and procedural justice) combine in compliant and non-compliant behaviour, and whether there is only one combination of motivations or several that lead to compliance and non-compliance . It illustrates how csQCA assists in making visible and analyzing situations of interacting compliance motivations (conjunctural causality) and situations where different combinations of motivations result in similar compliance behaviour (equifinality). It identifies symmetrical and non-symmetrical relationships between specific compliance motivations and compliance behaviours — indicating that motivations for non-compliance are not necessarily the opposite of those for compliance. This non-symmetry may logically be explained because deterrence plays a different role in compliance decisions than in non-compliance decisions. The article concludes by highlighting the relevance of such insights for theorizing on compliance and for law enforcement, and the limitations of the method applied.

Keywords: Compliance motivations, pesticide regulation, enforcement, China, crisp set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA)

Suggested Citation

Yan, Huiqi and van der Heijden, Jeroen and van Rooij, Benjamin, Symmetric and asymmetric motivations for compliance and violation: A crisp set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA) of Chinese farmers (December 16, 2014). Regulation & Governance, 2015, Forthcoming; UC Irvine School of Law Research Paper No. 2015-02. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2539192

Huiqi Yan

School of Public Administration, Central South University ( email )

Changsha, Hunan 410083
China

Jeroen Van der Heijden

Victoria University of Wellington, School of Government ( email )

PO Box 600
Wellington 6140
New Zealand

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.victoria.ac.nz/sog/about/staff/jeroen-vanderheijden

School of Regulation & Global Governance (RegNet) ( email )

Australian National University
Building #8
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200
Australia

Benjamin Van Rooij (Contact Author)

University of California, Irvine School of Law ( email )

401 E. Peltason Dr.
Ste. 1000
Irvine, CA 92697-1000
United States

University of Amsterdam - Faculty of Law ( email )

Amsterdam, 1018 WB
Netherlands

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