Predicting Ethnic and Racial Discrimination: A Meta-Analysis of IAT Criterion Studies

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 105, No. 2, 171-192, DOI: 10.1037/a0032734

22 Pages Posted: 3 Feb 2015

See all articles by Frederick L. Oswald

Frederick L. Oswald

Rice University

Gregory Mitchell

University of Virginia School of Law

Hart Blanton

Texas A&M University - Department of Psychology

James Jaccard

Florida International University (FIU) - Department of Psychology

Philip Tetlock

University of Pennsylvania

Date Written: 2013

Abstract

This article reports a meta-analysis of studies examining the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit measures of bias for a wide range of criterion measures of discrimination. The meta-analysis estimates the heterogeneity of effects within and across 2 domains of intergroup bias (interracial and interethnic), 6 criterion categories (interpersonal behavior, person perception, policy preference, microbehavior, response time, and brain activity), 2 versions of the IAT (stereotype and attitude IATs), 3 strategies for measuring explicit bias (feeling thermometers, multi-item explicit measures such as the Modern Racism Scale, and ad hoc measures of intergroup attitudes and stereotypes), and 4 criterion-scoring methods (computed majority-minority difference scores, relative majority-minority ratings, minority-only ratings, and majority-only ratings). IATs were poor predictors of every criterion category other than brain activity, and the IATs performed no better than simple explicit measures. These results have important implications for the construct validity of IATs, for competing theories of prejudice and attitude-behavior relations, and for measuring and modeling prejudice and discrimination.

Keywords: Implicit Association Test, explicit measures of bias, predictive validity, discrimination, prejudice

Suggested Citation

Oswald, Frederick L. and Mitchell, Gregory and Blanton, Hart and Jaccard, James and Tetlock, Philip, Predicting Ethnic and Racial Discrimination: A Meta-Analysis of IAT Criterion Studies (2013). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 105, No. 2, 171-192, DOI: 10.1037/a0032734, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2559154

Frederick L. Oswald

Rice University ( email )

Gregory Mitchell (Contact Author)

University of Virginia School of Law ( email )

580 Massie Road
Charlottesville, VA 22903
United States
434-243-4088 (Phone)

Hart Blanton

Texas A&M University - Department of Psychology ( email )

College Station, TX 77843-4235
United States

James Jaccard

Florida International University (FIU) - Department of Psychology ( email )

Miami, FL
United States

Philip Tetlock

University of Pennsylvania ( email )

Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States

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