The National Rise in Residential Segregation

66 Pages Posted: 9 Feb 2015 Last revised: 10 Feb 2015

See all articles by Trevon Logan

Trevon Logan

Ohio State University; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

John Parman

College of William and Mary - Department of Economics

Date Written: February 2015


This paper introduces a new measure of residential segregation based on individual-level data. We exploit complete census manuscript files to derive a measure of segregation based upon the racial similarity of next-door neighbors. Our measure allows us to analyze segregation consistently and comprehensively for all areas in the United States and allows for a richer view of the variation in segregation across time and space. We show that the fineness of our measure reveals aspects of racial sorting that cannot be captured by traditional segregation indices. Our measure can distinguish between the effects of increasing racial homogeneity of a location and the tendency to segregate within a location given a particular racial composition. Analysis of neighbor-based segregation over time establishes several new facts about segregation. First, segregation doubled nationally from 1880 to 1940. Second, contrary to previous estimates, we find that urban areas in the South were the most segregated in the country and remained so over time. Third, the dramatic increase in segregation in the twentieth century was not driven by urbanization, black migratory patterns, or white flight to suburban areas, but rather resulted from a national increase in racial sorting at the household level. The likelihood that an African American household had a non-African American neighbor declined by more than 15 percentage points (more than a 25% decrease) through the mid-twentieth century. In all areas of the United States -- North and South, urban and rural -- racial segregation increased dramatically.

Suggested Citation

Logan, Trevon and Parman, John, The National Rise in Residential Segregation (February 2015). NBER Working Paper No. w20934, Available at SSRN:

Trevon Logan (Contact Author)

Ohio State University ( email )

2100 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH OH 43210
United States

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

John Parman

College of William and Mary - Department of Economics ( email )

Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795
United States

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